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Bitcoin Side Networks: An Emerging Market
According to Blockchain researchers, as of October 17, a total of 9,661 BTC ($ 76.96 million), or 0.054% of today’s Bitcoin supply, resides on three major network projects.

Side chains are separate blockchain clamps that are connected to a conventional cryptocurrency block, that is, the trunk. Users can interact with it through a related mechanism; They send money to or from another party, with security features ensuring that the coins are not available simultaneously on both networks.

Side chains have been around for several years and have different functions depending on the goals of the developers.

Blockstream Fluid Connectivity, or LBTC, for example, focuses on changing business while enabling enhanced functionality for merchants on Bitcoin’s core network.

cryptocurrency prices live

Binance chain causes balances
Fluid launched in October 2018 currently includes 89 moderate BTC ($ 709,700). This figure was reduced to 9,001 BTC ($ 71.74 million) for the largest network, Binance Chain.

Even the Bitcoin WRApped Bitcoin (WBTC) lateral device, which is actually a collector of Ethereum-based ERC-20 standards, including 571 BTC ($ 4.55 million) – is more than liquid.

The WBTC debuted in January this year, and Binance Chain – the Binance cryptocurrency exchange home project – was able to open its mantle in April.

Earlier this week, blockchain wallet provider and digital asset manager CoinShares launched its own Bitcoin line, in the form of a gold mark network.

African travel tips when visiting Mozambique

Mozambique is best known for its beaches and shrimp. Mozambique also offers visitors world heritage sites, colonial architecture and a colorful local culture. In bustling markets, exquisite carvings and wickerwork are sold. The wooden and ivory sculptures of the Makonde are considered one of the most refined art forms in Africa.

Mozambique has also spawned talented painters such as Malangatana, and the murals of the country adorn many walls, especially in Maputo. Traditional music is Marrabenta music as well as Marimba and Calabash orchestras. In the rhythm of Africa, the ritual Nhau and Mapico initiation dances can be a frightening sight. Popular activities for travelers include scuba diving, snorkelling, bird watching and fishing for marlin, sailfish or kingfish.

CAPITAL:

Maputo

CLIMATE:

Subtropical, though droughts and low rainfall are common. The rainy season is from October to April and the dry season from April to September.

CURRENCY:

1 Mozambican Metical = 100 Centavos. Traveler's checks in USD or Sterling are recommended. Currency exchange at authorized institutes. Credit cards are not generally accepted. Many traders prefer USD. The import and export of national currency is prohibited.

ELECTRICITY:

220 Volt, 50 Hz. Plugs are 2 and 3 pin round.

BLESS YOU:

Travelers over 1 year who come from an infected area must be vaccinated against yellow fever. Visitors are advised to make arrangements before arrival to prevent malaria (risk throughout the year), hepatitis A, polio, typhus and meningitis, depending on whereabouts and seasons. Other health problems include rudimentary medical facilities, unavailable medicines, cholera (strict food and water hygiene) and influenza (the risk extends throughout the year).

LANGUAGE:

The official language is Portuguese, but also Makua and Tsonga are spoken. English is not widely spoken but can be understood.

PUBLIC HOLIDAYS:

New Year's Day (1 January); Hero's Day (3 February); Women's Day (7 April); Labor Day (May 1); Independence Day (June 25); Victory Day (7th September); Day of the Armed Forces (25th September); Day of the deceased (2 November); Christmas Day (25th December); Boxing Day (26th December)

SHOP:

Basketry; Reed mats; Wood carvings; masks; printed cloth; Leather goods; Shrimp; Wine.

SOCIAL CONVENTIONS:

The religion is mainly Roman Catholic, but other faiths include Muslim, Hindu and traditional beliefs. Shaking hands is the usual form of greeting. Portuguese customs, e.g. The address modes (Senhor / Senhora) apply. Dress is casual and formal attire is rarely required. For business safaris, hot weather suits are acceptable, while light suits are recommended for the rest of the year.

TIME DIFFERENCE:

GMT +2

TILT:

Ten percent is common, but hotels are not. Taxi drivers expect 10 percent.

TOP TEN ATTRACTIONS DESCRIPTION:

Maputo:

The capital has wide avenues lined with flowering red acacia and purple jacaranda trees. It offers many historical, cultural and scenic sites, such as the Cathedral; City Council chambers; Tunduro Gardens; Railway station; the fortress and natural history museum; Beaches are Praia da Macaneta; Ponta do Ouro and Ponta Malongane.

Xai-Xai:

224 km from Maputo; The nearby beach is a popular tourist destination with its massive reef that protects the coast from heavy waves at high tide. At low tide, the locals collect shells to sell to tourists. Visit the Praia do Chongoene, Bilene and the Banhine National Park with its diverse wildlife.

Mozambique Island:

About two-thirds of the island was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, as the buildings were built of coral. Sights include the Paul's Palace, the Museum of Sacred Art and the Fortress of St. Sebastian. nearby beaches are Praia de Fernão Veloso and Praia das Chocas; On the mainland, in the town of Nampula, you will find the cathedral and the museum.

Beira:

The second largest city in the country, Beira, stretches along the coast. Visit Largo do Municipio, Casa Portugal, Casa Infante de Sagres, Casa dos Bicos and the Cathedral. The best beaches are between the Clube Nautico and the lighthouse. Nearby Six Miles is an inland resort with an artificial lagoon with islands where you can swim or rent pedal boats. Game viewing in the province takes place in the famous Gorongosa National Park and the Marromeu Buffalo Reserve.

Bazaruto:

Archipelago Very popular tourist center consisting of Bazaruto, Benguerra, Magaruque and Santa Carolina islands off the mainland with quality hotels; In Inhambane on the mainland you will find the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Conception; Nature reserves are the Zinave National Park and the Bazaruto National Park.

Pemba:

The city has a pristine natural beauty; Visit the old town, where you can visit various traditional markets, the beaches of Praia do Wimbe and Praia do Farol; The nearby island of Ibo is part of the idyllic Quirimbas archipelago.

Lake Niassa & Niassa Reserve:

The province of Niassa offers breathtaking views and landscapes. The pristine Lake Niassa is only accessible by 4×4 vehicles and offers a "real Africa" ​​experience with fishing villages where you can buy fresh fish and coconut milk. The Niassa Reserve is famous for its large number of elephants.

Inhaca Island:

34 km from Maputo in the bay, accessible by boat or plane; Tours to Ponta de Santa Maria and the Portuguese island are possible.

Maputo Elephant Reserve:

79 km south of Maputo, the reserve is famous for its elephant herds; Flamingos can also be seen on the great inland lakes near the sea.

Face of the old man:

In the town of Chimoio, Cabeça do Velho is a spectacular natural stone formation that resembles the face of an old man.

The McFarland / Richardson murder case

She was a famous New York stage actress named Abby Sage. But after her ex-husband, Daniel McFarland, killed her lover, the journalist Albert Richardson, at Richardson's New York Tribune workstation on November 25, 1869, it was Sage's lifestyle that was thrown out, not just McFarland.

Daniel McFarland was born in Ireland in 1820, but immigrated to America with his parents at the age of four. McFarland's parents died when he was 12 and left an orphan. Determined to make a difference in America, McFarland worked in a hard-working shop. When he was 17, McFarland had saved enough money to visit the outstanding Ivy League University – Dartmouth. McFarland studied law in Dartmouth and performed excellently. After graduating, McFarland passed the bar exam, but instead of practicing law, McFarland accepted a position at Brandywine College and taught speaking – the ability to speak clearly and expressively.

In 1853, McFarland traveled to Manchester, New Hampshire, where he met a very beautiful 15-year-old girl named Abby Sage. Abby came from a poor but respectable family – her father was Weber – but Abby was quite intelligent and soon became a teacher and published writer. Four years after getting to know each other, McFarland and Abey married Sage. She was only 19 and he was twice her age.

Later, in a sworn statement to McFarland's murder trial, Abby said, "At the time of our marriage, Mr. McFarland assured me that he has a thriving law practice, great political prospects, and $ 30,000 worth of fortune. He was in New on our wedding trip Borrowing money to move on to Madison, Wisconsin, which has been designated as our future home practice any consequence, and that he had devoted himself solely to land speculation, some of which had catastrophic consequences. "

In February 1858, the McFarlands moved to New York City. McFarland told Abby that he had a better chance in New York to sell $ 20,000 to $ 30,000 worth of property in Wisconsin. However, McFarland sold nothing and soon Abby had to mortgage most of her jewelry to pay the rent. After the bills piled up and still no money coming in, McFarland assumed it was better to do it on his own. As a result, McFarland sent Abby back to her father's house in New Hampshire. In late 1858, McFarland finally sold some of his property in Wisconsin. Soon after, he brought Abby back to New York and they settled in a rented cottage in Brooklyn. There was born in 1860 her first son Percy and 1864 a second son Daniel.

McFarland's land sales business was flat and he started drinking heavily. Abby later wrote: "First, Mr. McFarland confessed the most extravagant and passionate devotion to me, but soon he started drinking heavily, and before we were married for a year, his breath and body steamed with vile liquor. but he screamed, "My brain is burning and alcohol is making me sleep."

At the beginning of the Civil War, the McFarlands returned briefly to Madison, Wisconsin. Soon McFarland realized that under the right circumstances and with a little training, his beautiful young wife would be the better earner of the two. To implement his plan, the McFarlands traveled back to New York City to train Abby as an actress.

In New York City, Abby tired her hand at dramatic readings, and she found that she had a talent for the stage. One thing led to another, and soon Abby played in several pieces and earned the decent sum of $ 25 a week. Abby's career progressed so quickly that she soon appeared opposite the great actor Edwin Booth in the Merchant of Venice (Edwin Booth was the older brother of John Wilkes Booth, the man who shot and killed Abraham Lincoln). Abby also supplements her income with several articles about children and nature. She even wrote a book of poetry entitled Percy's Book of Rhymes after her son Percy.

Abby's artistic achievements enabled her to increase her circle of friends. She quickly became friends with newspaper magnate Horace Greeley, his sister John Cleveland, and New York Tribune publisher Samuel Sinclair and his wife.

However, his wife's achievements have not helped calm the wild nature of McFarland. He used his wife's new friends and their connection to secure a political appointment. Later, Abby said, "Thanks to the influence of Horace Greeley, the founder of the New York Tribune, I gave him a position with one of the provost marshals (McFarland)."

Soon McFarland became jealous of Abby's new friends and his alcohol consumption increased exponentially. McFarland kept the money Abby earned by acting and writing, and spent everything on alcohol. McFarland began to open Abby's private mail, and if he did not like what he read, he threatened to kill Abby and himself.

"He had become a demon at the time," Abby said. "He would get up in bed, ripping the bedclothes and threatening to kill me, and if he was exhausted, he would ask me in tears for forgiveness and go to sleep."

Once McFarland became so angry that he hit Abby in the face, so hard that she stumbled backward. From then on, their relationship changed dramatically.

"There was a look in his eyes that made him burst into tears and begged me to forgive him," Abby said. "But from that moment I could never tell him that I loved or forgiven him because it was not the truth."

In January 1867, the McFarlands moved into a boarding house at 72 Amity Street, New York. Soon after, Albert Deane Richardson, who was in his mid-thirties at the time, moved into the same boarding school. Richardson was already known to Abby for meeting with Mr. and Mrs. Sinclair. Richardson had an orange beard and hazel eyes and was considered a very distinguished-looking individual of the highest order.

Richardson, born in Massachusetts, was one of the most famous reporters of his time. He was known for his writings as a war correspondent for the New York Tribune during the Civil War and he also spent time as a spy for the North. In 1862 Richardson was captured in Vicksburg from the south and spent a year and a half in two different confederate prisons. In December 1863, Richardson and another war correspondent fled the jail when they were imprisoned in Salisbury, North Carolina, and walked four hundred miles to reach the Union Lines in Knoxville. At the time of his detention, Richardson had a wife and four children. When he returned home, he discovered that his wife and daughter had died. Richardson took the support and care of the three other children, who were at the time of his death thirteen, ten and six years old.

Back at his desk in the New York Tribune, Richardson used his exploits of the Civil War by writing about his escape. The title of his newspaper article was "From the claws of death and from the mouth of hell". It was considered one of the best journalistic works from the time of the Civil War. Richardson expanded this article into a book and, in combination with his other writings, turned from a POW to a rich man. So much so that Richardson bought shares in the New York Tribune and made himself a minority owner of the newspaper.

By the time he moved to the same boarding house as the McFarlands, Richardson was now editor and author of the New York Tribune. (Editor's note: I was a sports columnist for the reincarnation of the New York Tribune in the 1980s.) Richardson used his room at 72 Amity Street as both an office and sleeping quarters. Richardson employed a stenographer, artist, and messenger boy at his staff at 72 Amity Street to deliver his work to the New York Tribune offices in downtown Park Row.

On February 19, 1867 McFarland returned to the inn and found his wife in front of Richardson's door. Abby claimed Richardson and they were discussing one of his articles, but McFarland would not own it.

Abby later wrote, "When we entered our apartment, my husband was furious, insisting that there was an inappropriate intimacy between Mr. Richardson and me."

McFarland immediately went for a three-day turn, again threatening Abby's life and saying he was committing suicide. On February 21, Abby left McFarland final. She grabbed her two children and moved in with Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Sinclair.

At the Sinclairs, Abby called her father, who now lived in Massachusetts, and briefed him on the situation. It was agreed that McFarland should be invited to the residence of Sinclair, and in the presence of Sinclairs and her father, Abby told McFarland that her marriage was over.

That same evening, Richardson called the residence of Sinclair. Richardson expressed his condolences to Abby and said he would do anything to help her in her distress. Then, as he left, Abby followed him to the corridor.

With tears in her eyes, she said, "You were very nice to me, I can not pay you back."

Referring to Abby's two children, Richardson said, "How do you feel about facing the world with two babies?"

She replied, "It looks hard for a woman, but I'm sure I can do better without this man than with him."

Before leaving, he said to Abby, "I want you to remember that I will gladly take on any responsibility you can give me in a possible future."

Two days later, Richardson asked Abby to marry him and told her he wanted to give her his motherless children so she could look after them like herself.

Abby later said, "It was absolutely impossible for me not to love him."

On the night of March 13, 1867, Richardson met Abby at the theater, where she had just finished a performance. Just as they turned a corner, McFarland hurried after them and fired three shots. one of them pierced Richardson's thigh. It was a superficial wound and Richardson was not badly injured. McFarland was arrested by the police, but due to inexplicable legal proceedings, McFarland managed to escape imprisonment.

When McFarland realized that his wife was lost to him forever, he decided to sue to get custody of both children. The courts reached a separate ruling that Abby would receive custody of Daniel and McFarland – the custody of Percy. In April 1868, Abby tried to see her son Percy, but McFarland denied her. McFarland was furious and threatened to beat her. At this point, Abby had no choice but to file for divorce.

In the state of New York, adultery was the only reason for divorce. In July 1868, Abby decided to divorce to Indiana, where divorce grounds were more extensive. These were drunkenness, extreme cruelty, and the failure to support a woman. Abby stayed in Indiana for 16 months until her divorce from McFarland was final. Then Abby traveled to Massachusetts with her family and Richardson met her there to spend Thanksgiving in 1869 with her and her family.

On November 25, 1869, at 5:15 pm, McFarland entered the Park Row offices of the New York Tribune. He quietly hid in a corner for about 15 minutes, until he saw Richardson enter through the side entrance on Spruce Street. While Richardson read his post at the counter, McFarland came up to him and fired several shots. Richardson was hit three times, but he could still walk two flights up to the newsroom where he threw himself on the couch, fatally wounded with a bullet in his chest. When the paramedics arrived, Richardson was taken to Astor House via the Town Hall and placed on a bed in room 115.

At 10 pm McFarland was arrested in room 31 of the Westmoreland Hotel on the corner of Seventeenth Street and Fourth Avenue. The arrest officer, Captain AJ Allaire, told McFarland that he had been arrested for shooting Richardson. First, McFarland said he was innocent of the allegations. Then he said shockingly, "It must have been me."

Captain Allaire took McFarland into custody and took him to Astor House, room 115. After Captain Allaire Richardson asked if the man in front of him had been his attacker, Richardson faintly lifted his head off the pillow and said, "This is the man!" # 39;

Abby Sage was immediately called to New York City. As soon as she arrived, Horace Greeley met Richardson's request, so that Abby and Richardson could marry on Richardson's deathbed. The wedding was conducted by Rev. Henry Ward Beecher and Rev. OB Frothingham. Three days later, on December 2, Richardson took his last breath and left Abby Richardson as a widow.

Prior to McFarland's trial, his attorney John Graham told The New York Press that Abby Sage's intentions toward Mr. Richardson were anything but honorable. Graham said, "This tender and touching marriage was a dreadful and disgraceful ceremony to gain the property of a dying man, and that helped to hasten his death."

At first, Richardson's New York journalists defended Richardson's honor, and they began to study McFarland's life to find anything that would discredit McFarland. The New York Tribune wrote that McFarland "had a habit of eating opium to drown out his worries."

The New York Sun, however, campaigned to discredit both Abby and Richardson. In an editorial titled "A Public Outrage on Religion and Decency," The Sun Richardson accused luring Abby away from her beloved husband. The sun has even dredged up a quote from McFarland's brother, who said, "Abby went reading just to get the opportunity to paint her face, pose as a beauty, and get in touch with this free-falling tribe at Sam Sinclair "

What followed was a press clash in which most New York dailies felt that Richardson and Abby were immoral and that McFarland did the honorable thing by killing the man who stole his wife.

The trial of McFarland began on April 4, 1820. Knowing that her husband's defender wanted to embarrass and discredit her, Abby resigned. However, Graham tried to get the Jury's sympathy to his client by having McFarland's son Percy sit next to him during the trial.

In his opening statement, Graham pleaded with the jury to understand the emotional anxiety his client had endured. Graham said, "The defendant's mental organization was so sensitive and affectionate that he was unable to deal with the deep concerns and misfortunes that awaited him, his speculations were catastrophic and the seeds of dissatisfaction began to sow. "

Then Graham got to the core of his defense as he attacked the virtue and honor of Abby. "When she met my client for the first time, she was just a poor factory girl, but once she said to my client," All I need to make myself an elegant lady and make her popular with the elite of New York , is money. "# 39; & # 39;

Then Graham told the jury that the turning point in his client's life had come on February 21, 1867, when McFarland came home at 3:00 pm and saw his wife leave Richardson's room.

"This beautiful woman was completely corrupted," Graham said. "She had tempted the performance of the stage and the company of the great men, too elegant and too popular for her modest fate, and the demon who made her face all the temptations for which she paid the price had to be Richardson with her soul "

Graham pointed out that the boiling point for his client had one day been reached when McFarland went to the New York Tribune office. There he received a letter from an office boy addressed to "Mrs. McFarland". The boy had falsely thought the letter was addressed to Mr. McFarland.

Graham told the jury, "My client opened the letter, reviewed it, and found that it was a love letter that Richardson, who was in Boston, wrote to Mrs. McFarland." In this letter, Richardson openly claims that he intends to marry this woman if she can get a divorce from Mr. McFarland. "

During the trial, prosecutors, led by former judge and then Congressman Noah Davis, focused on how McFarland maltreated and occasionally beat his wife during his marriage. To substantiate these allegations, the prosecutor's office called on Abby's relatives and friends, including a man of great clout – Horace Greeley.

However, Greeley was not a fan of the corrupt Democratic machine Tammany Hall, which Greeley incited many times in his newspaper. In return, Tammany Hall used her authoritative influence before and during the trial to discredit Greeley and Abby.

In his last two-day jury meeting, Graham tried to persuade the jury that his client was just the victim of unbearable consequences.

"The evidence proves the insanity under which the defendant worked at the time of the shooting," Graham said. "This was a state of mind that was evoked by the agony he suffered at the thought of the loss of his house, his wife, and his children."

The jury bought Graham's unbelievable defense as if a mark were in a three-card game. On May 10, they only needed an hour and fifty-five minutes to pass judgment for insanity that they had found not guilty.

Although deeply desperate, Abby Sage Richardson remained unwavering in New York City after the trial. She became a successful author and dramatist and was well received by both the literary and social communities. She has also edited and published a book of Richardson's unpublished work.

Abby also kept her promise to the dying Richardson that she would raise his three children as her own. She also raised her son Daniel, whose name was changed to Willie (not to be associated with his father Daniel McFarland). Abby's other son Percy left McFarland and returned to his mother. He changed his surname from McFarland to the maiden name of his Sage mother.

On December 5, 1900 Abby Sage Richardson died in Rome of pneumonia.

Daniel McFarland traveled west in 1880. He was last heard in Colorado, and there are no records of his death. However, historian Edmund Pearson said, "It did not take long for him to die to death."

Albert Richardson was buried in his hometown of Franklin, Massachusetts. In Franklin, a memorial to Richardson's exploits during the Civil War is prominently displayed. The inscription on the memorial reads: "Many thank you, who have never known your face, so, farewell, kind heart and true."

A short history of orange balls

What exactly is an orange ball? The short answer is that nobody knows. Yet it is one of the most ubiquitous of all the anomalous aerial phenomena that take place in our skies today.

Debunkers will tell you that helium balloons from hoaxers or Chinese lanterns brought out by partygoers are lit with balls or torches. That may be true in some cases, but it can either fly at over 800 miles an hour and stop on a penny or float for hours in a terrible wind? Is it common for military jets to hunt Chinese lanterns and helium balloons? And then there is the obvious intelligence that seems to accompany these bullets. They merge, they separate, they form geometric patterns like triangles and rectangles and constellations of stars, they disappear and return, and some alleged contacts even claim to communicate telepathically with them.

Conspiracy theorists will suggest that they are plasma bang weapons developed by DARPA or another US government agency. It is rumored that Boeing Phantom Works is working on these targeted energy weapons (DEWs) for the military, but hovers large plasma orbs for hours in the atmosphere or carries them on trajectories in groups of up to 30 at a speed faster than The speed of sound is still science fiction at this time. But it happens in our skies with or without the participation of Boeing!

The Mutual UFO Network (MUFON) does not classify them as unidentified aircraft (UAVs) and urges the field investigators to label them "unknown others" in their reports. When browsing reports, MUFON does not even use the term "bullet". The circle or sphere is the area closest to a classification in the database. However, looking at the MUFON sighting database (and anyone can do that, dear reader), daily reports from around the world flow in, and some even with very good video evidence to prove the sightings. Are they technological craft, a kind of biological entity or a bit of both?

To put it bluntly, these completely silent orange balls that roam our skies are not to be confused with the little paranormal bullets that are often seen in photographs that surround people in cemeteries and supposed haunted houses. These are objects with advanced technological capabilities, but sometimes, when seen up close, they seem to be molten pulsing energy or biomass blobs, with faint outlines of something that may be mechanical but almost invisible, like a shell ,

In 2008, the UK Ministry of Defense released its so-called X-Files and among the numerous published information, this nugget was about Orange Orbs:

"The Unidentified Aerial Phenomenon (UAP or UFO) is undeniable, as it is said to be capable of levitating, landing, launching, accelerating and disappearing at astonishing speeds, and they are reported to suddenly change their direction of flight and have significant aerodynamic characteristics far beyond that. " that of a known aircraft or a rocket – either manned or unmanned.

The conditions for the initial formation and maintenance of seemingly suspended charged masses (of plasma) that can form, separate, fuse, float, climb, dive, and accelerate are not fully understood.

Depending on the temperature and aerosol density of a color, it can be visually seen, either as a self-generated plasma color, as reflected light, or as a silhouette due to light blockade and background contrast.

Occasionally, and perhaps exceptionally, a field of indeterminate properties appears to exist in bulk formation between certain charged floating objects, the intervening space forming an area viewed as a shape, often triangular, from which light reflection does not occur. This is an important finding in the attribution of what has often been called a black "craft," often triangular and up to thirty meters long.

And while the sightings of these bullets multiply around the world, especially in the last two years, their presence is not new. Some researchers believe that they are incarnations of the famous and mysterious Foo Fighters that Allied pilots saw in the Second World War over the skies of Germany.

In his 1954 book "Flying Saucers on the Attack," author Harold T. Wilkins recounts the devastating episode of WWII US Lieutenant Lieut. David McFalls 20 miles north of Strasbourg on December 22, 1944:

"At 6:00 am (6:00 pm) near Hagenau, at an altitude of 10,000 feet, two very bright lights rose from the ground toward us, flattening and remaining at the stern of our aircraft, huge, bright orange lights They stayed there for two minutes, all the time on my cock, they were under perfect control, then they turned away from us and the fire seemed to go out. "

Newspaper clippings from around the world collected by UFO logists such as Cris Aubeck and Jacques Vallee clearly indicate Orange Orb's presence in the 19th and early 20th centuries, long before Nazi scientists and engineers after the war from the Americans were harvested for their space program. So you can not conclude that Foo Fighter's secret weapons were Russian, German or American designs.

In the India Gazette of July, 1832 we receive the following report on orange balls:

Meteors of June 23 and July 24, 1832, observed in Delhi and Meerut. An extraordinarily large meteor, or rather three fireballs, rose from the horizon of Est Southeast on the 23rd of last month, and when they rose to a height of about 15 degrees, they joined together to form a big fireball almost as big like a full moon in the meridian and crossed a bow of the sky by 115 degrees, before it disappeared in the west northwest. The light was very brilliant. "

And on October 2, 1907, in Reynoldsville, Pennsylvania, exactly the same thing happened as follows:

A remarkable story is told of a phenomenon in the sky last night at half past six, vouched for by the foreman of The Star (the newspaper) and a friend who witnessed it. While they were talking near Frank's Tavern, suddenly a bright golden fireball appeared in the northern part of the sky, paused only a moment, and then divided into three different orbs of almost equal size of radiant and blazing beauty, moving slowly and moved along graceful curve down over the sky. Apart from its gigantic appearance it resembled with its beautiful play of colors the appearance of a sky rocket. As the three stars moved across the sky, a pale trail of lamb resembled the description of a comet. The mysterious stars disappeared behind the eastern horizon … "

Again, in the Australian Kapunda Herald of March 16, 1880 recorded that:

A resident of this city tells us that on Monday morning, March 15, a strange phenomenon has occurred. At five minutes to four o'clock, a star in the northeastern sky seemed to burn brightly about 45 degrees above the horizon. Immediately thereafter it shot at tremendous speed southwest, but became immobile while it was still high above the horizon. It burned restlessly for a quarter of an hour with a reddish glow, and then slowly set in the southwest as brightly as it first appeared.

There is even a mention of bullets in April 1676:

"In Offenburg, a comet was seen that looked like a flaming sword with its blade pointing west, and next to it was a star and two blood-red bullets."

Source: Extraordinaires Maanedlige Relationer, April 1676

Even the US Air Force Project Sign (AKA Project Saucer later Project Grudge later Project Bluebook) has a letter from Major General Cabell (General Vandenburg's Air Force Deputy dated November 3, 1948) to Colonel McvCoy, who inquires about UFOs. Colonel McCoy answers in November 8th specifically:

The described objects fall into the following general classification groups, depending on their form or general configuration.

a.) Flat disc or circular or approximately circular shape.

(b) Torpedo or cigar aircraft in which no wings or fins are visible in flight

c) Spherical or balloon shaped objects

d) light balls without visible form

This is point d)!

Lake Erie in particular was a hot sighting area as early as 1867, and the Indian tribes in the area they called Wizard Lights pointed to an even earlier presence. Let's start here in Lake Erie with our research.

Enter Michael Lee Hill 2006

Starting in 2006, a musician named Michael Lee Hall, who lived near Lake Erie, began recording video of Orange Orbs appearing in the sky. His videos are clear and clear and abundant. Watch it on YouTube. For some in the UFOlogy community, Michael has mitigated his status with his unfounded claims that he is an alien hybrid descended from the Annanuki with extra blood. This blood was sent by Bill Birnes for analysis in the now-defunct TV show UFO Hunters and came back with certain extraordinary results that in no way prove he's alien – it's only rich in an enzyme called Creatine Kenase, which has some UFO Logisticians as a typical side effect of an abductee experience.

MUFON also examined his sightings on Lake Erie Orange Orb and concluded that they were just planes Michael was turning. This conclusion has been severely challenged since Lake Erie has been a no-fly zone since 9/11 because the Perry nuclear power plant is located on its shores near Cleveland.

Enter Robert Bigelow 2010

Michael Lee Hill has made some extraordinary, if not outlandish, claims on many UFOlogy blogs, web community sites, and TV shows, but one is very interesting and reasonably plausible. He claims that a Bigelow Aerospace Corporation investigator, Gary Hernandez, contacted him in 2010 for his Orb sightings and asked Michael to disclose the coordinates of his Orb sighting locations. A search on LinkedIn.com revealed that a full-time lawyer Gary Hernandez was a senior investigator for Bigelow's Classified Projects from 2010 to 2011.

If the claim is true, she throws Orange Orbs in a whole new light. Robert Bigelow is a billionaire real estate developer from Nevada who has made his fortune with his hotel chain holdings. Its aerospace company has launched two modules for the International Space Station. He sees a future for his company in space tourism. Mr. Bigelow also has an interest in UFOs. It's from childhood, when his grandparents were nearly killed in their car as they tried to avoid an orange ball on their way. His now discontinued National Institute for Discovery Science collected until 2004 UFO sightings (especially sightings in the Black Triangle).

In 2009, Bigelow entered into a highly failed and unfortunate financial partnership with MUFON (a nonprofit organization), which quickly broke up. Mr. Bigelow also owns the notorious Skinwalker Ranch, which is a hot bed of cattle mutilation and orange ball sightings. More significantly, the Federal Aviation Administration is shifting pilots' UFO sightings to Bigelow Aerospace.

The point is that we have a billionaire who seems to be interested in the coordinates of the Lake Erie Orange Orb sightings. If it's just planes, as MUFON says – why? If Michael Lee Hill is a charlatan – why?

Maybe it's an attempt to intercept and regain you, especially if it's an extraterrestrial technology? That's why!

Enter Terry Ray 2014

Terry Ray is a MUFON Field Investigator from Pennsylvania. I met him at the Pittsburgh MUFON conference in October and he is a very nice man. Terry has this year written a book with the very long title "The Complete History of the Worldwide Orange Ball Invasion" available from Sunbury Press. It is a three-part book that begins and ends with its investigation of the phenomenon and contains about 200 recent reports submitted to MUFON and other centers in the middle of the book.

Perhaps Terry's biggest achievement in investigating the phenomenon is his visual map, which is based on thousands of MUFON sightings in recent years. Terry has found that these sightings are increasing exponentially, and that they are visible over every major American city, to be seen by as many people as possible. Their goal seems to be slowly getting people to get used to their presence when they are actually alien. However, they completely avoid a city and that is Washington DC. Do you avoid the confrontation with our military? Would Chinese lanterns and helium balloons with torches be so demanding?

Terry also believes that these bullets come from underwater bases and that they are often seen along the Atlantic coast during their nocturnal maneuvers and also (not surprisingly) seen massively over Lake Erie and the Atlantic Ocean like Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.

Terry believes that they are alien and that seems to be the growing consensus.

I'm a MUFON Field Investigator and of the 50 cases I've investigated this year, there were about 40% sightings of orange balls over New Jersey.

The MUFON case 5937 of 14th August 2014 is perhaps the most sensational I've ever worked on even though there is no video or photo proof. The object in the distance was clearly an orange ball. The object was first seen close to the witness at a distance of no more than ten feet. It was a churning, bright orange ball rising in the air, surrounded by a faint bell almost invisible to the naked eye. The witness stated specific dimensions that were about 8 feet high and 5 feet wide. It was shaped like a bell or a jellyfish. It hovered near an outdoor electric transformer just outside its backyard, possibly to derive energy from it. As she became aware of her presence, she began to withdraw and to strengthen the feeling and awareness of her presence.

On August 24, 2014, witnesses of MUFON case 59219 in Ouachita, Louisiana described the same object as in case 59379 in New Jersey. They said, "My wife and I noticed an orange, transparent, bell-shaped object at a height of 200 to 300 feet above the ground, heading north, then turned 90 degrees to the east, no sound, have seen it until it has disappeared. "

The witnesses drew a very accurate diagram of the bell-shaped plasma sphere.

Comparing Cases 59219 and 59379 with Michael Lee Hill's first encounter with the Orange Orbs in 2006, we get a strikingly similar description of an Orb close-up. Michael noticed it looked like a cylinder and added, "It looked like a flat platform of bright plasma red, you could see the edges very well, they were not fuzzy, and on top of that platform was what looked like Like a bright sun, a kind of plasma ball the size of a small plane, the ball was about 1/3 of the length of the lower part, just imagine a line with a ball over it, and that's it It looked like the line part would be about three meters thick. "

Three close encounters with Orange Orbs and all very similar. They seem to be energy balls with a faint outline of something bigger that surrounds that energy. The outline is large and flat at the bottom and smaller and rounded at the top.

It may be a coincidence, but on December 9, 1965, a strangely shaped object collapsed in the woods outside the city in Kecksburg, Pennsylvania, causing a rapid and overwhelming military reaction. Whatever the object was, it was carted away on a pickup truck to never be seen again.

And another, even more intriguing coincidence emerges from the realm of conspiracies over bell-shaped orange balls. In 2000, Polish weapons expert Igor Witkowski published a book entitled "The Truth About the Weapon of Wonder." It describes his experience in conversation with a former Nazi officer named Jakob Sporrenberg, who tells Witkowski about the now infamous Nazi experiment titled The Bell.

What The Bell was and whether it ever existed or not is a question of discussion, but if you look at it in the context of the bell-shaped orange balls in our skies, traveling in truly mysterious circumstances, you have to wonder if the Nazis are actually in any way By transport working platform with exotic technology, possibly regressed by an allegedly crashed UFO in Germany before World War II. If you want to believe Mr. Witkowski, many German scientists lost their lives when they contributed to this experiment. It is also believed that it fell into American hands at the end of the war. Was the Bell an advanced propulsion system or something even more exotic than a time machine? Was the bell the object that crashed in Kecksburg in 1965? Was The Bell The Object Seen In 2014 In A Backyard In New Jersey In MUFON Case # 59379? We do not know, but we see patterns emerge.

One more case to make a point. MUFON case 57701 of 5 July 2014 in Eatontown, NJ. The witness claims after an orange ball crossed the sky: "Within a few minutes, several fast-moving aircraft were seen flying in the same direction as the unidentified object."

Eatontown, NJ, is located north of McGuire Air Force Base. The Air Force is determined not to investigate UFOs, but we have recurrent jet fighters crawling for UAVs in MUFON database reports. It's been like that since the 1940s and they never seem to catch those things !!!

How long have you been here? A few centuries or more?

Over 3,500 years ago, the pharaoh Thothmosis III. In ancient Egypt, the following reports about possible aliens in his heaven were submitted to the papyrus:

"In year 22, the third winter month, six hours a day, the archivists or chronicles of the scribes or annalists of the House of Life stated that a circle of fire had appeared in the sky … (But it had no head Breath that stank, a staff long, his body and a staff were wide and it was noiseless, and the scribes' hearts were startled and confused, and they lay flat on their bellies …

They told the pharaoh. His Majesty ordered … was examined … and he meditated on what had happened and what is recorded in papyri of the House of Life.

Now, after a few days passed, these things became more numerous in the sky than ever before. They shone more than the brightness of the sun and reached the limits of the four pillars (quarters) of the sky …

In the sky dominated the station of these fiery circles. The army of Pharaoh watched with him in their midst.

It was after dinner. As a result, these fire circles rose higher in the sky to the south. "

"Fish and winged animals or birds fell from the sky, a miracle that has never existed since the founding of this land, and the Pharaoh brought incense to make peace on earth … And what happened was the Pharaoh's writing in the annals of the House of Life … so that it will be remembered forever. "

Was this the first arrival of the orange balls on earth? Maybe they were alien visitors looking for a new home. In the 3,500 years since their arrival, they did not seem to have caused any problems with the Earth. Are they a race of beings who want to live peacefully with earthlings? Are they machines? Do they live biological entities?

And what about her affinity to water? It has long been speculated that they have underwater bases near Myrtle Beach and Lake Erie. Why? Since the Second World War they have been spotted worldwide from the Pacific over the Atlantic, the Arctic to the Tasman Sea !!! Is there anything about water that calms or helps cool your engines, or in any way provides for their supply?

Take the unusual sighting of lights under the sea surface from last summer. Maybe a bunch of orange balls under the surface in the Pacific?

From the Daily Mail of 26th August 2014:

A pilot and his co-pilot have discovered a mysterious orange-red glow over the Pacific.

The strange lights were discovered south of the Russian Kamchatka Peninsula on the flight of a Boeing 747-8 from Hong Kong to Anchorage, Alaska.

And although no explanation has yet been given, it is believed that they stem from the explosion of a huge volcano under the surface of the ocean.

Dutch pilot JPC van Heijst explained … how, five hours after the start of the ten-hour flight, they discovered an intense flash of light, directed like a bolt of lightning straight into the distance. This was followed 20 minutes later by a deep red and orange glow. And the experience disturbed van Heijst a little, as there was no explanation of what had happened.

Together with his co-driver, van Heijst said they were "not feeling well" while no other plane was around to confirm the sighting.

"We have reported our observations to air traffic control and are now investigating what happened in this remote region of the ocean," he added.

While we are still a long way from solving the puzzle of orange balls, we now have at least some questions we can ask ourselves. Are they alien? Are you friendly? Are they time machines or interdimensional transport machines? Are they secret Government black operation projects like antigravity drives? Are they even machines or are they still alive? We do not know … YET!

What exactly is an orange ball? The short answer is that nobody knows. But we will surely learn a lot about her!

The Regional Jet Airlines of Long Island MacArthur Airport

Introduction:

The story of the 50-seat regional jet produced by Canadair and Embraer – and to a lesser extent the history of the Fokker F.28 Fellowship and the British Aerospace BAe-146 – was in many ways the story of Long Island MacArthur Airport the guy ultimately facilitated the big carrier aligned hub feed service. It represented the larger range of airlines at smaller and secondary airfields and offered the same speed, deadlock and comfort as the traditionally larger mainline jets. This closed the gap between them and the small and too slow turboprop aircraft with 19 to 50 passengers for many of these industries.

The need was largely driven by deregulation of the airline, which resulted in the rise of the hub-and-spoke route system in the US. Tunneling and feeding passengers to the more powerful majors such as American, Continental, Delta and United from longer but slimmer segments operated by regional airlines that carried the majors' two-letter code and the original independent livery With this new type of aircraft, commuter companies expanded rapidly. It was the right plane at the right time and led to the so-called "regional jet revolution".

The regional jets were not only the most cost-effective way for airlines to connect hundreds, if not thousands, of communities with airport hubs and global airline networks, "said Bombardier Aerospace (who later acquired Canadair)" passenger travel experience, providing more traffic to regional carriers, Revenue and larger market shares. To further increase traffic growth, the idea was promoted to fly between "language cities" with the Canadair Regional Jet. Each new spoke city increased the number of connecting passengers that flew to the hub of a mainline partner of a regional airline. These extra routes offered passengers in small communities more flight options. "

This certainly happened at Long Island MacArthur Airport of Islip.

"There are literally hundreds of markets where regular jet service is not possible, but 30-, 50- and 70-seaters can now offer jet comfort and economic service," commented Doug Blissit, once vice president of Delta Air Lines network analysis. "The regional jets represent a phenomenal economic transformation in the industry. The vast majority of missions were to increase the range of the hubs with more economical aircraft."

In addition to the cooperative character of the type, he also had a competitive side. It could be seen as a tool that attacked the major airlines 'hub-and-spoke fortresses and allowed smaller airlines that began as traditional turboprop commuters to penetrate the cracks in the majors' armor and create new point-to-point Forge point routes that do not require a hub for sufficient load factors.

Early regional jet operations:

Perhaps the earliest regional jet in the Western world, banning the Russian three-engine Yakovlev Yak-40 with 27 passengers, was the Fokker F.28 Fellowship.

The popularity of the 40-passenger F.27 Friendship twin-engined aircraft, which looks like a compass needle in the direction of a pure jet complement and offers higher speeds and shorter block times, led to the development of the F.28 itself.

It was announced in April 1962 and was designed for short-range operations, but provides more seating for 65 people in a hull wide enough for five adjacent arrays. Similar to the main aircraft, such as the British Aircraft Corporation BAC-111 and the McDonnell-Douglas DC-9, it featured a low-mounted, composite wing at its front edge, two rear-mounted Rolls Royce RB.183 Spey Junior turbofans, a dorsal fin and a T-tail, which remain simple by eliminating top-of-the-line equipment. Unique to its design was a hydraulically operated air brake, which formed the rear end of the fuselage. Expandable to varying degrees, it enabled steep but slow and controlled descent profiles.

Apart from the financial support from the Dutch government, the risk sharing of the program came from Short Brothers of Belfast, Northern Ireland. HFB and VFW of Germany; and AiResearch, Dowty Rotol and Goodyear.

Three prototypes flew for the first time on May 9, August 3, and October 20, 1967, and the first production version, the F.28-1000, was delivered to customer LTU of Germany two years later on February 24. As with the F.27, sales could be counted in the single digits, as the F.28 was usually the largest type in the fleet of a small airline.

A stretched version, the F.28-4000, had a total length of 97.2 feet and an almost 12 foot greater wing span of 82.3 feet. Powered by two Rolls Royce Spey 555-15H turbofans with a 9,850 pound displacement, it had a maximum takeoff weight of 73,000 pounds, a cruising speed of 530 mph at 21,000 feet, and a maximum payload fuel ratio of between 1,162 and 2,560 miles. Although accommodating 79 passengers in five ranks in a classroom, six more passengers (85 in all) could be carried with a 29-inch seat pitch, with an additional overflow exit installed on each side.

The type considered in Piedmont's Islip operation.

Piedmont itself had already inaugurated its planned flight connection on February 20, 1948 with flight 41. At 7:00 am, the DC-3 of Wilmington, North Carolina, embarked on the multi-trip voyage to Pinehurst, Charlotte, Ashville, the Tri-Cities. Lexington and Cincinnati. Two other aircraft of the type and 250 employees formed the backbone of metal and human.

With continued expansions, particularly with Atlanta line extensions, Delta and Eastern flights were initially serviced and growth increased significantly until it became a standalone US major. Perhaps symbolic of his prestige was his arrival in New York in 1966, both in the truest sense of the word and among major airlines.

The profit rose: in 1965 it was $ 1 million, two years later almost double. Established its first hub in Charlotte, North Carolina, and shone its reach to major cities such as Boston, Pittsburgh, Tampa, Miami, Dallas / Ft. Worth and Denver carrying more passengers than the traditional Charlotte fortress of Eastern Airlines.

With 727 to 100, 727 to 200 and 737 to 200 – the latter as a short to medium-term workhorse – it announced in the system timetable of October 31, 1982: "We make it easy to gain a foothold in over 80 cities."

Afterwards, hubs were set up in Baltimore and Dayton, and the 767-200ER's wide body finally reached the West Coast and Europe.

By 1987, Piedmont operated a fleet of 177 men to 235 targets with 23 million passengers and was thus ready for the acquisition of US $ 1.6 billion by USAir.

The capacity, especially the F.28-1000 with 65 passengers, secured the frequency at Long Island MacArthur Airport.

Of the five daily departures to Baltimore hub, morning and evening departures were made from 737 to 300 passengers. The flights in the morning and afternoon were flown with Henson, the 37 passengers comprehensive DHC-8-100 of the Piedmont regional airline. and the midday sector was operated on the F.28-1000, allowing it to "size out" its equipment according to time of day, capacity and demand.

When Piedmont took over New York-based Empire Airlines in 1986 along with its hub in Syracuse and an F.28-4000 with 85 passengers, it used the type of Islip to supply its much-developed hub in Charlotte.

Another early regional jet was the British Aerospace BAe-146.

As the ultimate design response to the need for feeder or regional aircraft, it has undergone numerous iterations, including the DH.123 high-wing dual-turboprop models proposed by de Havilland and a rear-engined low-wing model until it reached the HS.146 of Hawker Siddeley with Avco Lycoming ALF-502 turbofans with high bypass ratio. Since they did not produce the required thrust for the intended aircraft, only the use of four pylons mounted on the underside of the high wing could provide the required power and range.

Although the official launch of the type appeared promising in 1973, it did not come at the right time due to the subsequent global economic crisis, rising oil prices and escalating development costs and was discontinued in October 1974. The restrained development was nevertheless continued.

After the merger of de Havilland and Hawker Siddeley to the nationalized British Aerospace Authority (British Aerospace) and the execution of its own design and market test, it was granted on July 10, 1978, the full program development by the government.

The final assembly took place in Hatfield.

Like the F.28 Fellowship, a stern and a rear wing brake for steep approaches that form a hull, she distinguished herself by a high wing, even without front edge, and the four turbofans. While the cabin was wide enough for six seats, most airlines opted for five.

The first BAe-146-100 flight from Hatfield took place on 3 September 1981. This was followed by two successively more powerful, stretched versions, the BAe-146-200 and the BAe-300.

The first to be launched for the first time on August 1, 1982, was 93.10 feet long and 86 feet apart with a 15 degree sweepback and tabbed Fowler flaps at the trailing edge. Up to 112 passengers of the single class could be accommodated at a 29-inch distance of six next to each other. Its maximum gross weight was 93,000 pounds and the range was 1,130 nautical miles at full payload.

The BAe-146 was put into service on 27 June 1983 at Air Wisconsin.

Presidential Airways, founded in 1985 by Harold J. Pareti and headquartered in Washington, was the only operator of the type in Islip to operate a fleet of eight BAe-146-200s in addition to its 737-200s. The airline, which links Long Island with its Dulles International hub, later served as the Continental Express and United Express code share airline and served the main flights in Washington.

Later Regional Jet Operations:

The first regional jet of the next generation emerged as Canadair (later Bombardier) CRJ.

Aside from developing completely new designs, aircraft manufacturers of low-capacity, pure jets have two options: downsizing an existing airliner such as the DC-9-10 would have added too much structural weight to the market or increased aircraft. Those who fell into the latter category were business jets, though their tight hulls made them less than ideal for such commercial use. Because of the wide cabin of its own CL-600 Challenger, which was first flown in 1978, Canadair was able to choose the latter option.

Originally planned to accommodate a one-way, 24-passenger, four-distance haul, and designated as a CL-600E, it was first released in 1980, but its plans to proceed with the year-after-year version were canceled. In 1987, or a year after the takeover of Canadair by Bombardier, the concept of the small regional jet was reconsidered and launched in 1989.

A more ambitious version than originally envisioned, it introduced a 19.5-foot track that features front and rear fuselage stoppers, additional overhead overflow exits, a reinforced higher-capacity wing, and two rear-mounted General Electric CF34 turbofans After a test flight with three aircraft, the company received the FAA certification on October 29 of the following year and began service to the first customer Lufthansa CityLine, which deployed it from Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg and Munich are both point-to-point – as well as hub feed services for Western European destinations offered.

Apart from what a pilot called a "sexy look," the original CRJ-100 version had a pointed nose, a length of 87.10 feet, a winglet span of 69.7 feet and an area of ​​520, 4 square feet and an exclusive trailing flaps, two CF34-3A1 thrust reversers with 9,220 pounds and a T-tail. Fifty-four passengers side by side could be accommodated in narrow seats in a cabin with closed storage compartments, a galley and a toilet.

The payload was 13,500 pounds, the gross weight 53,000 pounds and the range 1,650 nautical miles.

The subsequent CRJ-200 with CF34-3B1 offered greater range, lower fuel consumption and higher cruising speeds and altitudes.

The sales of both types was 1,054.

Headquartered at Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport, Comair was the first modern regional jet operator of Long Island MacArthur.

The aircraft, which was put into service as an airline in 1977, first landed in Akron / Canton, Cleveland and Evansville with eight-passenger Piper Navajos and piston engine, followed by Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirantes with 18 passengers.

After founding a Cincinnati hub in 1984, the company was accepted as a Delta Connection carrier and used in painting. It expanded significantly and soon acquired the equipment of Fairchild Swearingen Metro, Shorts 330, Embraer, EMB-120 Brasilia and Saab 340. Orlando became its second hub.

As a US customer for the Canadair Regional Jet he operated until 2005, 163 of these types, including 63 CRJ-100ER, 37 CRJ-100LR, 37 CRJ-200ER and 27 CRJ-700LR.

Delta acquired 20 percent of Comair's shares in 1996, the remainder three years later.

The guy was instrumental in the service launch of Islip and offered three daily morning, afternoon and evening flights to Cincinnati to allow passengers to access their own flights and flights from Partner Delta. This connection opened the rest of the country and parts of Canada to Long Island.

Another Canadair regional jet operator of MacArthur, which was also a Delta Connection carrier, was ASA Atlantic Southeast Airlines.

On June 27, 1979, the DHC-6 Twin Other by de Havilland of Canada opened an independent scheduled service from Atlanta to Columbus, Georgia. The machine went through another turboprop aircraft, the EMB-110, and subsequently acquired the Reinjet BAe-146-200 and CRJ-200 types, which powered the Delta hub in Atlanta after having its own two-letter engine. Had signed a marketing agreement with him. As with Comair, ASA was supplemented by increasing share purchases until the full participation of Delta.

Cincinnati, which was reached in 2002, was the 100th target and in 2003 the 100th regional jet was delivered. By 2011, 112 CRJ-200ERs, 46 CRJ-700ERs and 10 CRJ-900ERs were in operation.

Islip was connected to its own and Delta-spanned Atlanta hub with three daily CRJ-200 return flights operated by ASA. Comair later served the route.

Another regional Canadair-Jet operator of Islip was Air Wisconsin, which was called the US Airways Express and restored the connection that was lost due to the slot restrictions of Washington Reagan National, as the incoming aircraft, on 25 March Arrived at 1250 in 2012, a water curtain was granted on MacArthur's ramp.

It left again around 1328 and was the first of two daily CRJ-200 tours. Although it was highly endorsed by lawmakers, it was short-lived.

The counterpart of the Canadair Regional Jet – if not a competitor – was the Embraer ERJ-145.

He used his power from never before available engines, which enabled him to operate in predominantly untapped markets, and tried to outweigh the higher fuel consumption of these engines compared to the conventional turboprop engines, by increasing the daily utilization of his shorter stall times as well the associated benefits increased with their greater passenger acceptance.

In contrast to Canadair's business jet CL-600 Challenger, the EMB-120 Brasilia served as a basis of inspiration. It introduced two hull plugs and a revised wing with extended leading edge, light sweepback and winglets, but replaced the turboprop engines with pure jets in pods. The tail was preserved. It was originally called the EMB-145 Amazon.

The Allison GMA-3007 turbofan with a thrust of 7,100 pounds and a potential of up to 10,000 pounds was selected in early 1990.

Iterations, involving shorter distances, larger spans, greater fuel capacity, higher weights, and improved performance, resulted in the final ERJ-145, which first flew on August 1, 1995. At the very front of the cabin was a gangway with a payload of 12,755 pounds and a gross weight of 48,501 pounds. It was first delivered to launch ExpressJet Airlines, which operated as Continental Express the following year. It offered the capacity, speed and range to meet demand on longer, narrower routes and to serve both its own and Continental's flights.

"With its hub at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, Continental Airlines is the largest airline in northeastern Ohio, offering more than 250 daily departures to nearly 80 cities," said United Airlines Corporate News, March 29, 2004. "With one of the youngest Aircraft fleets in the US offer Continental and Continental Express convenient high-frequency links from Cleveland Hopkins to major business centers such as Boston, New York (Newark Liberty, LaGuardia, Kennedy, White Plains, and Islip), Washington (Reagan National, Baltimore-Washington and Dulles), Chicago (O & Hare and Midway), Houston and Atlanta.

Like other regional airlines, ExpressJet itself was the result of several turboprop commuters, including Bar Harbor Airlines of Bangor, Maine; PBA Provincetown-Boston Airlines of Hyannis, Massachusetts; Rocky Mountain Airways of Denver, Colorado; and Brit Airways from Terre Haute, Indiana, all of which flew with their operating permit.

On September 4, 1998, the regional jet ERJ -145 was inaugurated and eventually the largest operator of all three versions of the type, including the smaller ERJ-135 with 37 passengers and the ERJ-140 with 44 passengers.

Its three daily frequencies in the morning, afternoon and evening from Islip to Cleveland, on which the flight numbers "CO" are indicated, connected Long Island with the rest of the country.

Another regional jet carrier of MacArthur Embraer was American Eagle.

As with Continental Express, the American Eagle concept introduced in late 1984 resulted from American Airlines' inability to economically serve the secondary and tertiary markets with its mainline jets. It grew fast, fed its hubs, and rose from turboprop to pure-jet. The first officially named American Eagle flight from Fayetteville, Arkansas, to Dallas took place on November 1, when one of the 14 Metroflight's Convair 580, powered by two 3,750-hp Allison 501-D13H turboprops, landed at the southwestern American hub. The aircraft, which was rebuilt by CV-240, -340 and -440 piston engines, was eventually replaced by Saab 340.

Also this year, Poughkeepsie, New York, joined Command Airways, which ran the Beech 99s, DHC-6 Twin Otters, Shorts 330s, Shorts 360s and ATR-42s.

Simmons, the third, seeded Japanese NAMC YS-11, Shorts 360, ATR-42 and ATR-72 from Chicago-O & Hare, and Wings West, the fourth, C99, Fairchild Swearingen Metros, Jetstream 31 and Saab 340 to destinations on the west coast.

Finally, the Puerto Rican-based Executive Airlines jumped into the pool on September 15, 1986, running CASA C-212-200 Aviocars, Shorts 360s, and ATR-72s.

From Islip, a noon ERJ-145 to Chicago-O'Hare, which supplemented the American MD-80 in the morning and in the evening, replaced the four daily 34-passenger Saab 340 (which was in front of AMR, Inc.) flew the colors of Business Express), acquired it and folded it into the American Eagle brand) with an equal number of 37 passenger ERJ-135 frequencies.

Another Long Island MacArthur American Eagle ERJ-145 operator was Piedmont, which traces its origins back to Henson Airlines.

The company was founded in 1961 by Richard A. Henson, an aerospace pioneer and Fairchild Aircraft test pilot, and has been named "Henson Aviation" in 1962 under the name "Hagerstown Commuter" as a stationary base operator in Hagerstown, Maryland.

Five years later, the company signed a codeshare agreement with Allegheny Airlines and replaced its own carrier in Salisbury, Maryland. In 1977, it entered Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington and acquired its first four-engined 54-passenger de Havilland from Canada DHC-7 two years later.

The company, acquired by Piedmont Airlines in 1983, has been renamed "Henson, The Piedmont Regional Airline".

The following year, the first DHC-8-100 with 37 passengers was delivered, and the end of 1987, 38 destinations were served in ten states and in the Bahamas.

After merging with USAir in 1989, Henson served as USAir Express and later as US Airways Express carrier, but was renamed Piedmont Airlines four years later to maintain its original identity. American Airlines, which bought US Airways in 2013 and renamed it American Eagle, has maintained this philosophy.

Today, Piedmont / American Eagle operates three daily ERJ-145 frequencies that leave Islip at 0710, 1035 and 1858 for Philadelphia, one of the former hubs of USAir / US Airways. Return flights land on Long Island at 1007, 1833 and 2221.

Both ASA Atlantic Southeast Airlines and Comair flew with the larger CRJ-700 to Islip.

The result of Bombardier's first attempt to offer a higher-capacity version to more effectively compete with the Fokker F.70 and the Avro International RJ70, both 70-seater, was the official launch of the program in January 1997. Based on the original CRJ -200 introduced a slightly wider hull with a total length of 106.8 feet; a larger wing with a span of 76.3 feet and an area of ​​760 square feet; Leading edge batten for increasing lift at low speed and for reducing take-offs; 13,790 thrust-pound CF34-8C5B1 turbo fans; a lower floor for more headroom in the cabin; raised passenger windows; a one-class capacity of 78; and 18,055 and 75,000 pounds of maximum payloads and gross weights.

The first flight took place on 27 May 1999 and was put into service two years later by Brit Air. The pattern privilege of the lower capacity predecessors has been retained.

The extended-range CRJ-700ER had a capacity of 1,504 nautical miles and a cruising speed of 0.78 km / h (448 knots).

Regional Jet Snapshots in Time:

Due to demand, the need to adjust capacity and timing, and in some cases to substitute one type of aircraft for another, any attempt to discuss Long Island MacArthur's regional jet operations can only be performed as a snapshot.

For example, in the latter part of 1988, which may be considered its early regional jet period, Presidential Airways operated its BAe-146-200 to Washington-Dulles, while Piedmont operated its "in-size" aircraft to the frequency Henson DHC-8-100s, and the 65-passenger Passenger's lunch at F.28-1000 between 737-300s morning and evening and Henson DHC-8-100s in the morning and afternoon.

In 1998, the beginning of the era of next-generation regional jets, Long Island was connected to Delta's Atlanta and Cincinnati hubs and Continental's Cleveland, each operating a 50-seater CRJ-100, a CRJ-200 and an ERJ-145 from Comair, ASA and ExpressJet.

Daily departures included three Comair / Delta Connection CRJ-100s to Cincinnati, two American Eagle ERJ-145s to Chicago, two and later three ExpressJet / Continental Express ERJ-145s to Cleveland and three ASA / Delta Connection CRJ-200s to Atlanta ,

During the first month of regional service, the latter airline carried 6,980 passengers, making it the airport's third largest tenant in terms of boarding.

By December 1999, eight of the 37 daily pure jet flights or 19 percent had been carried out with the new generation of Canadair and Embraer regional jets. In March 2000, the monthly number of passengers in the regional aircraft was 16,210, ie 6,107 carried by ASA, 6,831 by Comair and 3,212 by ExpressJet.

In August 2002, American Eagle replaced its four Saab 340 flights to Boston with ERJ-135 flights delivering American Airlines hub feeds, and in the fall, ASA and Comair equipped two or three of their frequencies in Atlanta and Cincinnati on CRJ-700 with larger capacity around.

Last inauguration of the Regional Jet Service:

The last airline to hit Long Island with the regional jet was Elite Airways.

As the name suggests, the company was founded in 2016 to provide a high quality travel experience. It entered the arena as a US airline, Part 121, and promoted sports teams and executives both on scheduled and charter services on routes from northeast to Florida with a CRJ -100, five CRJ-200s and five CRJ-700s.

Twice-weekly limited CRJ-700 compounds from Islip to Portland, Maine; Myrtle Beach, South Carolina; and Melbourne, Florida, were inaugurated on June 17, 2016. However, lower utilization factors led the company to pause twice between January 15 and February 16, 2017, and April and July of this year to review its strategy.

As the second barrier turned into an unexpected 16-month barrier, it finally reappeared on September 6, 2018, this time with a CRJ-200 from Thursday and Sunday to Melbourne. It was called Flight 7Q 21 and started at 08:00 clock and arrived at 10:45 clock in the sunshine. After a 45-minute turn, it started again at 11:30 clock towards Bimini in the Bahamas and was Islips first direct connection.

"The route is designed so that passengers from Islip can only book a flight to Melbourne or stay aboard the Bimini transfer service," said Rebecca Emery, PR Manager at Elite Airways. "It's the Bahamian island closest to the US, with miles of secluded beaches, four-star hotels and Resorts World Bimini Casino and Marina."

The return flight, 7Q 23, left Bimini at 13:30, but required the prior clearance of US Customs and Border Guard. An hour later she landed in Melbourne, started in 1600 as 7Q 24 and landed in MacArthur around 2045.

Low load factors reiterated its stance, leaving Piedmont / American Eagle's ERJ-145 at the beginning of 2020 as Islip's only regional aircraft in Philadelphia.

The history of the airport of the Republic

1. Farmingdale's Aviation Origins:

Located in Farmingdale, Long Island, the Republic's airport is a historically significant airfield for the region and the world, which has played both military and civilian roles. But long before it became an airfield, the manufacturers of aircraft emerged.

"The industrial revolution and aircraft came to Farmingdale during World War I when Lawrence Sperry and Sydney Breese set up their landmark factories in the community," wrote Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas in their book "Aircraft Construction in Farmingdale" (Arcadia Publishing, 2016 ), P. 9). "They were attracted by the presence of two branches of the Long Island Railroad … the nearby Route 24, which brought the car and truck traffic to and from the fifty-ninth road bridge in Manhattan flying fields and the proximity to skilled workers … "

However, the first aviation roots of the area were planted as early as 1917. The Lawrence Sperry Airplane Company, whose capital this year was $ 50,000 and was located in the streets of Rose and Richard in the village of Farmingdale, produced their first messenger-style aircraft.

Designed by Alfred Verville of the US Army's Engineering Division at McCook Field, the tiny 3-meter wooden biplane was designed for airborne motorcycle missions that landed in small clearings to deliver messages from the field and to intercept commanders, thus earning his name. Farmingdale's aerial roots were equally cultivated by Sydney Breese, whose Breese Aircraft Company, located on the Eastern Parkway, designed the penguin. Similar to the Bleriot XI, the center-wing aircraft, powered by a 28-horsepower, two-cylinder Lawrence engine, was a non-flying preflight coach designed to assist the US Army's pilot in the transition from primary to operational type. Used in the open plains of Texas, it had too short a wing span to create lift, but it allowed young pilots to transmit the feeling of aerodynamic forces to their horizontal tails before take-off. Of the 301 produced, only five were ever used for this purpose; the rest was stored.

2. Fairchild Aviation Corporation:

When Lawrence Sperry and Sydney laid down Breese Farmingdale's aviation foundation, Sherman M. Fairchild cemented it.

Initially he was interested in aerial photography equipment, founded the Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation in 1920, and sold two such devices to the Army. He then developed the company into Fairchild Aerial Surveys to create maps after receiving an order for an additional 20 devices.

Fairchild was eager to replace the myriad aircraft types it operated with a single, specially designed camera platform. He developed the required specifications for one, but could not find a manufacturer who was able to build them at a reasonable cost. He was forced to found his third carrier, the Fairchild Aviation Corporation, and moved to the Sperry factory in South Farmingdale after the tragic death of Founder Sperry in December 1923.

Known as the FC-1 and first flown as a prototype in 1926, the single-engine, single-wing, multi-purpose multi-purpose aircraft had a closed and heated cabin to protect the pilot and his camera equipment, but the original OX-5 engine proved inadequate. Retrofitted with a higher-capacity Wright J-4, it was renamed FC-1A.

The production version of the FC-2 carried by wheels, floats or skis was characterized by a larger cabin volume. Powered by a 200 hp Wright J-5, the commercial-purpose aircraft had a total length of 30 meters and a span of 30 meters. It took a single pilot and four passengers, or up to 820 pounds of cargo, had a gross weight of 3,400 pounds and could reach top speeds of 122 mph and service segments of 700 miles.

Demand at the factory in South Farmingdale soon slackened. After surveying the region from the air, Fairchild opted for a 77,967-acre alternative on the south side of Route 24 and Conklin Street in East Farmingdale, a location that dominated the prevailing winds on the south coast and access to multiple modes of transport a railway line and railway enabled the main corridor Route 110, which would facilitate both the transport of passengers and raw materials into the new area. In airplanes repackaged, this could then fly out.

"The 77,967-acre Fairchild Flying Field was developed in late winter and early spring 1928 and was originally owned and operated by the Fairchild Engine and Airplane Manufacturing Company," said the Long Island-Republic Airport Historical Society. The first flights of (it) took place in the late spring of 1928, after the Fairchild Airplane and the Fairchild Engine factories were completed and aircraft produced Fairchild built the models 41, 41A, 42, 21, 100, and 150 aircraft. "

Wings such as the Hempstead Plains in the west rose again from the fields on Long Island, which were later built, powered and supported by the Fairchild Airplane Factory, the Fairchild Engine Factory and the Fairchild Flying Field. Faircam Realty, Inc., acquired the property and the original division took place on 3 November 1927.

Although Fairchild produced several models in his new aviation center in Long Island, his roots would soon turn out to be tender. After only three years in 1931, the company relocated to Hagerstown, Maryland, and evicted its facilities, which were almost immediately refilled by American Corporation or AVCO, whose divisions Airplane and Engine produced the Pilgrim 100 transport for American Airways. But the economic crisis has severely dampened demand for aircraft, as aircraft purchases were high on a company's cost-cutting list and its presence was lower than that of Fairchild. In the middle of 1932 it had disappeared as well.

3. Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation:

Originally Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation was located in Valley Stream, where it constructed floats. She moved east to the Fairchild Flying Field and settled in the former Fulton Truck Factory, where she hatched her first series fighter, the FF-1. Powered by a single 750 horsepower Wright engine, the double-decker with retractable landing gear was also offered in scout configuration as SF-1.

However, the most significant aircraft that emerged from the East Farmingdale production line was the Duck. After Loening had its origins traced back to the XO2L-1 of Loening Aeronautical Engineering Corporation, she had been filed in 1931 with the US Navy. However, since Loening did not have the necessary facilities, he turned to his former colleague Leroy Grumman. filed in amended form. The adopted on April 25, 1933 biplane XJF-1 was powered by a 700-horsepower twin-Wasp engine, which propelled a three-bladed Hamilton standard propeller. The stiffener, consisting of a set of struts outside the fuselage and a second set of wires between the two wings, was minimal for the time. The water insert was supported by a centerline float under the fuselage into which the landing gear was retracted.

A total of 632 JF and J2F ducks were produced, which were pressed into a global service with multiple roles.

Although Grimman's presence in Farmingdale exceeded that of anyone else, it ended half a decade later in 1937, when it was moved to a larger headquarters in Bethpage, Long Island.

4. Seversky Aircraft Corporation:

The Seversky Aircraft Corporation was next in focus at Farmingdale when she moved from College Point in Queens to the former factory of American Corporation.

Alexander P. de Seversky, an excellent World War I ace, emigrated from Russia to the US like Igor Sikorsky, and in 1923 developed the first gyroscopically stabilized bomb at the Sperry Gyroscope Company before founding his own Seversky Aero Corporation, which focuses on Aircraft instruments and parts.

Equipped with fresh capital, it first occupied the hydroplane factory of EDO Corporation.

Its first major design, the SEV-3, was both aerodynamically elegant and advanced, reflecting Seversky's aviation-intuitive character. Powered by a single, 420-hp, nose-mounted Wright J-6 Whirlwind engine, the all-metal low-wing aircraft that housed one pilot and two passengers in slidable tandem cockpits was either supported or floated by a wheeled chassis and set a world speed record in 1933 for piston amphibians. Two years later, on September 15, it reached an airspeed of 230 miles per hour.

The foundation of many subsequent versions, which externally showed only minor deviations from the basic design, evolved to the next big iteration, the BT-8. The first all-metal, enclosed cockpit operated by the US Army Air Corps had a length of 24.4 feet and a span of 36 feet. Equipped with the 400 hp Pratt and the Whitney R-985-11, the 4050-pound airplane with a capacity for two people reached a top speed of 175 miles per hour. Thirty were built. It led to the final version.

The Seversky Aircraft Corporation, which originally occupied Hangar 2 on the New Highway and is now used by the American Airpower Museum, took over the Grumman factory in 1937 when she moved to Bethpage, thus maintaining two facilities. However, based on the brief history of tenants at East Farmingdale Airport, it ended abruptly: Although Seversky, like many other aeronautical "geniuses", had the design capabilities needed to build advanced aircraft, he lacked the necessary management skills. It required a reasonable and profitable business plan to market, resulting in a loss of $ 550,000 until April 1939. Half a year later, on October 13, when he ran a European sales tour, he was ousted from his own board by directors who voted for his departure from the company he founded.

It was reorganized and renamed Republic Aviation Corporation.

5. Republic Aviation Corporation:

The assets of Fairchild Flying Field should change. Driven by World War II, the fledgling Republic Aviation Corporation would explode and its roots would be planted so deeply into farmingdale soils that it would take decades to dig them out.

Crucial for this war was the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt.

As the successor to the Seversky P-35, it was the result of the requirements of the Army Air Corps, which included an airspeed of 400 miles per hour, a service ceiling of 25,000 feet, machine guns with a caliber of at least 6.50, protection against armor and self-sealing Fuel included tanks and a minimum fuel capacity of 315 gallons.

The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, which overshadowed all other aircraft, was the world's largest, heaviest, single-engine, single-seat strategic WWII fighter and offered unrivaled dive speeds.

The wartime growth of the officially renamed "Republic Airport" led to the expansion of the company's existing factory on the south side of Conklin Street and the construction of three additional buildings, the installation of a control tower and the extension of the existing runways were 9,087 units in Farmingdale in action to support the P-47 production. By 1944, 24,000 employees were required. Every day thousands of employees joined together. A 24-hour production line spit out an hourly finished aircraft from the factory, which was then transported by the Women Air Force Service Pilots (WASPs). Republic Aviation, one of the country's main defensive veins, pumped man and machine into Farmingdale's agricultural plains, transforming them into a democratic arsenal within 18 months.

"By 1945, the Republic was contributing more than 30 percent of the Air Force fighters to the war effort against the European Air Force," wrote Leroy E. Douglas in his September 2007 article "Conklin Street Cut-Off." 1984 Long Island Forum Issue (p. 182). "So Republic, Rangers and more than 23,000 workers, of which more than half were women, did their part in winning the war."

When the doors of World War II closed, the doors of the Thunderbolt factory and the Republic also had to diversify their product range in terms of purpose and propulsion and convert the Douglas C-54 Skymasters into commercial DC-4 aircraft that produced 1,059 civilian ones Seabee amphibious aircraft and the attempt to design their own passenger transport.

The resulting aircraft, the Republic XF-12 Rainbow, received a contract for two together with the rival and identically powered Hughes XF-11.

The rainbow, which mimics the graceful lines of the Lockheed Constellation, with a total length of 93.9 feet and design experience from the development of fighter jets in the Republic, emanated a look that was published by the Aviation Week and Space Technology magazine entitled "The sharp nose "and the cylindrical cigar shape of the XF-12 fulfills a designer's dream of uncompromising aerodynamic design. "

Peace was the enemy of the plane. The end of World War II prevented his (and the comparable Hughes XF-11) need. Nevertheless, its day and night capability for capturing photos with limited visibility and long range, high speed and altitude made it ideal as a territorial mapping platform. In fact, on September 1, 1948, the second of just two aircraft ever shot its transcontinental flight path from the Air Force Flight Testing Center in Muroc, California, to Mitchell Field, Garden City, Long Island, during Operation Birds Eye.

The Republic returned to its military roots and entered the era of pure jets with a P-47 Thunderbolt successor.

With a length of 37.5 feet, the design, which was designed shortly before the end of the war in 1944, maintained the straight wings associated with propeller aircraft. These stretched over 36.5 feet.

The 19,689-pound fighter-bomber, the F-84 Thunderjet, which flew for the first time on February 28, 1946 and was able to ascend at a speed of 4,210 fpm, set a national speed record of 611 miles per hour. GE 7th Its range was 1,282 miles and its service ceiling was 40,750 feet. The production amounted to 4,455 units.

The development of the successor began in 1949. Due to a financing shortage of the Air Force, the Republic reduced the development costs, by increasing the common ground with the F -84 to 60 percent, but introduced wing swings. The aircraft, powered by a 4,200-pound Allison XJ35-A-25 engine and originally named YF-96A, flew for the first time on June 3 of the following year, three months before it was renamed F-84F Thunderstreak has been.

The increase in funds triggered by the Korean War allowed the republic to complete a second prototype, which was first flown on February 14, 1951 with a YJ65 W-1 engine, followed by the first production example, which went to heaven on November 22. 1952. The type was used by NATO countries during the Cold War.

The production of the F-84F Thunderstreak amounted to 2,713 aircraft.

Nonetheless, Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas combined aircraft construction in the Republic in their book Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale (pp. 7-8). "While aviation at Farmingdale began with cloth-coated tri-and biplanes and propeller engines, after the Second World War the Republic helped put the United States into the jet age with the F-84 and F-84Fs Forces in Korea and the NATO countries stood by the side in the 1950s. "

6. Fairchild Republic Corporation

Although Fairchild left exactly the airport it had created in 1931, this absence was short-lived. Three years later, it reappeared in its former engine factory as a newly formed Ranger Aircraft and Engine Corporation and remained there until 1948. But for the second time, the cycle of history was about to end.

Nine years later, she took over Hiller Helicopters and became Fairchild Hiller. In July 1965, she acquired the majority of the republican shares, which resulted in the Republic Aviation division of Fairchild Hiller. So Fairchild had returned to the ground where he planted his first seeds. In 1971, she continued her buying frenzy, buying Swearingen and producing and marketing the Fairchild-Swearingen Metro 19-passenger twin turboprop. The following year, the company adopted the official title Fairchild Republic.

Its pre-Republic design was developed by the Air Force, which needed an air support plane with easy maintenance and short field performance to operate from small front air bases near the battle line.

It was called A-10 Thunderbolt II and ran 733th It was instrumental in the Gulf War and involved in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

7. Postwar production:

Although the Republic's airport and its airlines were primarily associated with the development and manufacture of military aircraft, various commercial and space components emerged from its doors.

In the Boeing 747 were integrated, for example, built by the Republic Aviation Division of Fairchild Hiller leading edge battens, trailing edges, spoilers and ailerons. Supersonic aircraft 2707.

Also inextricably linked to the Space Shuttle were the Fairchild Republic components manufactured in Farmingdale.

Fairchild Hiller, after receiving a $ 13 million contract from Rockwell International in Los Angeles on March 29, 1973, designed and developed six vertical aluminum rear stabilizers that had a 45 degree leading edge and 27 feet high and 22 feet long. along with the associated oars and brakes. The first, which was installed on the test vehicle Enterprise, enabled the atmospheric launch of a piggyback-filled 747 platform over Edwards Air Force Base on February 18, 1977, while the others were mounted on Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavor space shuttles ,

On 25 January 1980, Fairchild Republic signed a contract with Saab-Scania of Sweden for the launch of the SF-340, which was the first fully cooperative venture between a US and a European aerospace manufacturer. Fairchild Republic was commissioned to design and build its wings, engine nacelles, and vertical and horizontal tail units. The final assembly took place in Sweden.

Fairchild Swearingen has been given marketing responsibility for North America, while a Swedish joint venture, Saab-Fairchild HB, has opened an office in Paris to fulfill this role elsewhere.

Powered by two turboprops, the aircraft offered space for 34 passengers in a four-side configuration with a central aisle.

However, after completion of around 100 airfoil sets, Fairchild ended its contract work for the regional aircraft and withdrew from all civilian projects. The aircraft received the new name Saab 340.

8. Change roles:

The Republic Airport was operated on March 31, 1969 by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), which privately converted it to a public facility by acquiring 94 hectares of land from the US government and acquiring another 115 hectares Owned southwest.

"The Metropolitan Transportation Authority has acquired Republic Airport as the first step toward converting to field aviation," said the Long Island-Republic Airport Historical Society.

Several improvements have been made with the introduction of a modernization program. For example, high-intensity searchlights were installed on runways 1 to 19 and 14 to 32 feet, the latter of which also featured an instrument landing system (ILS). The Fulton Truck Factory, the original structure of the 1916 airport, was demolished, while Flightways transformed a ten-acre site on the north side of Route 109 into a complex of new hangars, administration buildings, fuel tanks, and aircraft anchorages. A two-storey administrative, terminal and maintenance building opened in 1983, not far from the launch of a $ 2.2 million FAA control tower.

To promote the economic development of the surrounding region, the legislature of the State of New York for the third time transferred ownership to the Department of Transportation of the State of New York (DOT) on April 1, 1983, which was advised by a nine-member airport of the Republic Commission. It has hardly slowed down the pace of modernization.

Eight years later, a $ 3.5 million, 25,600-square-foot Grumman corporate hangar replaced the aircraft warehouse previously maintained at the now-closed Bethpage aerodrome and housed a Beechcraft King Air, a Gulfstream I, and two British Aerospace BAe- 125-800s , open.

In April 1993, the foundation for a $ 3.3 million SUNY Farmingdale Aerospace Education Center was laid on the east side of Route 110.

Million Air, a subsidiary of Executive Air Support, has built an 11,700 square meter Executive Air Terminal and corporate hangar at the southern end of the airport. Until 2001, Air East started operations in its own new radiant, 10,000 square meter airport building. A square meter hangar housing a 2,500 square meter store and a 4,500 square meter office and flight school. Another hangar and office complex in the Lambert area was opened in June 2005, when the charter company Talon Air opened from there.

In order to give the newest generation of business jets such as Gulfstream V and Bombardier Global Express more freedom, the Rollweg B (Bravo) was relocated.

In fact, more than $ 18 million in capital improvements has been made since 2000 alone.

These improvements, which provided the airport for its new role in general aviation, may have been a foreshadowing of things to come.

In 1982, Fairchild Republic was awarded the contract to build two training jets of the new generation Air Force T-46A. The milestone, originally conceived as a monetary lifeline, had only the opposite effect: although the prototype was first launched three years later, it was missing around 1,200 parts, while the second completed a successful first flight of 24 minutes in July In 1986, the controversial program contract was terminated, which led to layoffs of 500 employees.

Like so many companies that needed military contracts to survive, Fairchild Republic ceased to exist the following year. The burgeoning factories and a legacy that began six decades ago remained. Ironically, the two names Fairchild and Republic, who were instrumental in the beginning and growth of the airport, were the same people who were involved in its demise. The doors of the Farmingdale airfield, which mainly manufactured and tested military aircraft, were closed and the general aviation doors were opened.

"Since the company had major financial problems in 1986-1987 and the T-46A program was no longer supported in Congress, Fairchild discontinued both SF-340 and T-46A production after building just four aircraft" according to Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas in aircraft manufacturing at Farmingdale (page 99). "So, in autumn 1987, seventy years of aircraft construction in Farmingdale ended in employment and economic loss for the community and the New York metropolitan area."

9. Airline service:

In 1966, one year after the ownership of the Fairchild Hiller Airport by the Farmingdale Corporation, it was officially designated as a (civilian) general aviation facility for the first landing of a Beechcraft twin-engine Ramey Air Service based in Islip. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority has signed a contract with Air Spur for the provision of this feeder service four years later, to make the connection to the three major New York airports a gateway and to estimate $ 12 for one-way flights.

Although the Republic was never considered as a major commercial airport, its central location on Long Island, its proximity to the Route 110 corridor, and its sizeable infrastructure enabled limited scheduled and charter services to key business and tourist destinations in neighboring states. However, the inherent operating restriction was specified as part of the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update.

"At the Republic airport," the Department of Transportation of the State of New York introduced a weight limit of 60,000 pounds for aircraft in 1984. This weight restriction restricts the operation of aircraft with an actual gross weight of over 60,000 Pound one without the written consent of the airport operator. "

"According to forecasts, the number of jets stationed at the airport of the Republic will increase," the master plan update says, "and jet flight operations will increase," as the annual statistics of pure jet flight operations will eventually prove: 2,792 In 1990, 4,976 in 1995 and 6,916 in 1998. And of the average annual number of about 500 aircraft, this segment was also the fastest growing: 10 jet aircraft in 1985, 15 in 1995. That number has since then more than doubled.

One of the first scheduled flight trials was undertaken in 1978, when Cosmopolitan Airlines, with a former Finnair Convair CV-340 and two former Swissair CV-440 Metropolitans in a one-class configuration with four side-by-side, offered an all-inclusive charter package to Atlantic City from the Cosmopolitan Sky Center. The flyer had advised, "Fly to Atlantic City for just $ 19.95 net How it works: Pay $ 44.95 for a round-trip ticket to Atlantic City, including ground transportation to and from Claridge Hotel and Casino Arriving at Claridge You will receive $ 20 in food and beverage credit at any restaurant except the London Pavilion and you will receive a $ 5 credit on your next flight to Claridge at Cosmopolitan Airlines. "

The airline also briefly attempted to offer two daily scenic flights to Boston in 1980 with its 52-passenger CV-440.

This scheduled service growth was facilitated by the construction of a passenger terminal.

"The terminal building, completed in 1983, covers an area of ​​around 50,000 square meters and houses first-floor airport service vehicles, maintenance, fire protection, public terminal areas and rental space, as well as administrative offices on the second floor, with approximately 70 employees working in the building" 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update (Chapter 1, p. 17).

PBA Provincetown Boston Airline attempted to connect Farmingdale with Newark International's main New York Metropolitan Airport to service its departures, and began shuttle service on the Cessna C-402 commuter aircraft connecting Long Island with a 30-minute antenna Embark on up to five daily round-trip flights and coordinate flight schedules with PEOPLExpress Airlines. It competed to avoid the excessive travel time, parking costs and longer check-in requirements that would otherwise be associated with using larger airports, and provided the convenience of transit rates, ticketing and baggage control for each PEOPLExpress final destination.

According to the schedule of the Northern System of 20 June 1986, Farmingdale departures were offered at 07:00, 09:00, 12:00, 14:00 and 17:00.

Demand soon necessitated replacement of the C-402 with a larger 19-seat Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirante.

Alle diese kurzen, erfolglosen geplanten Versuche, die die unbegründete Besorgnis der Anwohner zunichte machten, dass sich die Republik letztendlich zu einem bedeutenden Verkehrsflughafen entwickeln und Lärm auf die Ohren der unmittelbaren Nähe ausüben würde, scheiterten daran, den nötigen Verkehr anzulocken, um sie selbsttragend zu machen. Hervorhebung mehrerer flughafenspezifischer Faktoren.

1). Die Republik war im letzten Teil ihrer Geschichte konsequent mit allgemeinen und nicht geplanten Operationen verbunden.

2). Long Island MacArthur hatte sich bereits als die wichtigste kommerzielle Einrichtung der Insel etabliert, und Fluggesellschaften, wie von Precision / Northwest Airlink gezeigt, erzielten durch die Verwässerung desselben Marktes keinen Ertragsvorteil, verursachten jedoch erhöhte Flughafen- und Betriebskosten.

"Der Flughafen der Republik wurde von verschiedenen Pendlerfluggesellschaften bedient, von denen jede ihren Flugbetrieb eingestellt hat …", heißt es in dem 2000 aktualisierten Masterplan für den Flughafen der Republik. "Angesichts der größeren Flughäfen wie La Guardia, Kennedy und MacArthur und des von ihnen angebotenen Service ist das Marktgebiet für Pendlerdienste geografisch begrenzt."

"Seit 1969 trägt der Flughafen der Republik dem Bedarf der Region nach einem Flughafen für Privat- und Geschäftsflugzeuge sowie für Charter- und Pendlerverkehr Rechnung", heißt es weiter (Kapitel 1, S. 1). "Da sich die Republik inmitten der Entwicklung von Wohn-, Gewerbe- und Industriegebieten befindet, ist ihre Rolle nicht mit der eines Linienflughafens für den gewerblichen Luftverkehr vereinbar."

Da die Zahl der jährlichen Fahrgäste von 13.748 im Jahr 1985 und 30.564 im Jahr 1990 auf 33.854 im Jahr 1995 stetig gestiegen ist, konnte ihre künftige Pendlerrolle nicht gänzlich ausgeschlossen werden.

"Während die bisherigen Bemühungen der Pendlerfluggesellschaften nicht erfolgreich waren, besteht das Potenzial für einen zukünftigen Flugdienst, das bei der Planung des Flughafens berücksichtigt werden muss", heißt es abschließend (Kapitel 2, S. 10).

10. Die Zukunft:

Anders als die Felder Roosevelt und Glenn Curtiss, die dem Druck der Neuzeit erlagen und ihre Start- und Landebahnen gegen Einkaufszentren austauschten, übergab die 526 Hektar große Republik nur einen kleinen Teil von sich selbst dem Einkaufszentrum Airport Plaza. Es war maßgeblich an der Entwicklung der frühen Luftfahrt sowie an den Kriegen in Korea, Vietnam, am Golf und im Irak beteiligt und verwandelte sich in eine Einrichtung für die allgemeine Luftfahrt, die mit 546 Flugzeugen ihren Höhepunkt erreichte und nach JFK International der drittgrößte Flughafen in New York wurde und La Guardia.

Das westlichste Luftfahrtunternehmen in Long Island, das sich selbst als "Luftbrücke des Unternehmens für die Wirtschaft des 21. Jahrhunderts" auszeichnet, hat 1.370 Arbeitsplätze und 139,6 Millionen US-Dollar wirtschaftliche Aktivität und unterstützt 60 Unternehmen am Flughafen. Die 110.974 Bewegungen, die 2008 verzeichnet wurden, umfassten 52 nicht starre Luftschiffe, 7.120 Drehflügel, 76.236 einmotorige Kolben, 6.310 zweimotorige Kolben, 5.028 Turboprops und 16.228 reine Jets. Letzteres, das zweithöchste Ergebnis, unterstreicht seine zunehmende Rolle als "Teterboro von Long Island" und weist möglicherweise den Weg in seine Zukunft. Indeed, companies considering the area for their corporate locations cite the airport as a major asset, since it provides close-proximity aerial access for personnel and materials.

Toward that end, the State of New York approved funding in April of 2009 for a Vision Planning process to collect data from residents, employees, businesses, and users, and then plot its future course. Specifically, the program had a three-fold purpose-namely, to define the airport's role, to determine how it will fill that role, and, finally, to ascertain how it will work with the community to attain the desired operational and economic goals.

"As part of the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS), Republic Airport is designated as a reliever airport with commercial service," according to the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update (Chapter 1, p. 1). "Under ownership by the New York State Department of Transportation, there are specific state development and policy procedures which are followed."

Although it may never eclipse its current general aviation role, its importance was not to be underestimated.

""Republic Airport is an important regional asset," it stated (Chapter 1, p. 1). "It provides significant transportation and economic benefits to both Suffolk and Nassau counties. The policy of the New York State Department of Transportation and the Republic Airport Commission shall be that Republic Airport continue to better serve Long Island."

Whatever the future holds for it, it has a nine-decade foundation upon which to base it, as acknowledged by the plaque hung in the passenger terminal by the Long Island-Republic Airport Historical Society, "honor(ing) the tens of thousands of men and women who labored here in East Farmingdale, contributing significantly to aviation technology and aircraft production." Those men and woman turned the wheels of the 11 aviation companies based there.

Sources

Long Island Republic Airport Historical Society website.

Neubeck, Ken, and Douglas, Leroy E. Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2016.

2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update, New York State Department of Transportation.

Pierce Hale, Private Eye: The honeymoon killer

It was 7:30 pm on a Saturday night when Pierce Hale was escorted to Club Dahlia. Pierce sat at a mahogany table, poured from a narrow green bottle, and occasionally leaned back to blow smoke rings. He waited patiently for his dinner. It was 1945 in Miami South Beach. Tropical plants adorned the room opposite the large open archways leading to a ballroom on the roof. A blue-white light from the hotel sign across the street bounced off the wall, cigarette smoke filled the room, and sirens howled down the street. They were screaming, but not nearly as often as Pierce was used to when he worked as a detective on the Boston Police Homicide.

Police chief Davin Laport tried unsuccessfully to persuade him to stay, and it had been only a few months since Pierce had resigned from his job in Boston, where he had served scot-free for twenty years. He enjoyed the dark nights in a harsh city and missed the days he hunted down the bad guys without having to do all the paperwork. Lengthy paperwork. That was a big difference between his work in Boston and his own investigative agency in downtown Miami. The paperwork never seemed to end. Yes, there were times when he could take to the streets next to Johnny Batinni, the mid-twenties investigator, but most of the time he was sitting in the old brick office he rented on the second floor of a rundown building in downtown Miami ,

He had not retired early to fulfill the dream of having his own investigative office, though he had often convinced himself that was the reason. Pierce Hale had retired to be closer to the woman who had just been led in by the porter. She wore a black felt hat, a long black skirt with a red floral print blouse, a shiny red lipstick, and black high-heeled peep toe shoes. Pierce's jaw dropped. He had known her for five years and his jaw was always falling.

"Elizabeth!" Exclaimed Pierce, waving his fedora above his head. "I'm over here!"

Elizabeth Booth was the most beautiful and intelligent woman he had ever met, and she did not look like most of the 53-year-old women of the time. Somehow, the stress that went along with those years did not age them like most women did. She had no wrinkles under her eyes and looked 15 or even 20 years younger by her complexion. She stood about six feet and weighed a buck fifteen.

Elizabeth sauntered over to Pierce, her heels moving near the percussion on the heavy wooden floor as she approached.

"I do not think I've been here since 1942, and it's falling apart somehow," exclaimed Elizabeth as she set aside a half-empty beer glass.

"Do not be silly, Elizabeth, we drank here less than 6 months ago when I told you I was retiring," Pierce replied.

"That's probably true, but I still do not understand how it is that these places were still not taken care of in 1945," she said as she leaned forward and kissed Pierce on the cheek. "How are you, Pierce?"

"Oh, I'm feeling a lot better than a few minutes since you showed up," Pierce said, trying not to be excited to see her.

The truth was that Pierce had a lot in mind today. A problematic case had been brought up by Johnny Batinni, who seemed overwhelmed with all the work on his desk.

"Actually," Pierce continued, "I'm struggling with a case my lucky assistant thinks is too much, and two women were killed near Winter Beach in the last two weeks, and it's interesting that both were killed. " they were on their honeymoon and their husbands do not seem to be connected at all. "

Elizabeth could tell when Pierce was having a conversation and when he actually had a case. The salt and pepper mustache he wore still seemed a bit twitchy when he had problems with work.

"It reminds me of a case I had in Boston in 1940, when three teenagers all drowned in exactly the same spot in the Boston harbor, and none of the boys was connected in any way other than their age, their parents were not involved and no one could find any clues, and eventually the guy himself was so guilty for the feeling that it turned out he had been kidnapped about his childhood and had to get it out to someone who actually enjoyed his youth. "

Pierce paused for a moment, hoping Elizabeth would give her some encouragement, which she always did.

"So, do you think that could be some sort of arbitrary force directed against newlyweds?" She answered.

"Exactly, the only problem is that I have no idea where to start looking for this guy, in both cases the husbands left their hotel for a few minutes, and when they came back their wives were in the back of their minds Shot with a caliber of .22. No evidence left behind, no fingerprints, no ID, no nothing, "Pierce informed her.

"Where did all this happen, Pierce?" Elizabeth asked curiously.

Pierce took a minute to remember the names of the two hotels where the killings had taken place. This was mainly because Pierce had fixed himself on the long, windy, dark strand of hair that was out of place, dangling perfectly over Elizabeth's glowing, hazel eyes. It brought him back to the day they met at the end of the 1930s on a passenger ship from New York Harbor.

"One was at the Mangrove Inn and the other was at the Hurricane Hotel," Pierce answered the question after remembering the conversation. "Why do you ask that?" he continued.

"I know the owners of most of the hotels in Winter Beach," Elizabeth replied. "In fact, Lisa Porter is the owner of the two hotels you just mentioned, have you talked to her?"

Pierce shook his head. He had not been able to get in touch with Mrs. Porter, even if he lacked trial. Every time he turned the dial on the phone to call her, he heard nothing but a ringing on the other end.

"She does not seem to be in town, and I have no way to contact her," Pierce said. "Why is it that you own two hotels that have committed two different murders and are unavailable to the local police?"

"Well, maybe you just will not try it, Pierce," Elizabeth said with a sly grin on her face. "Come to my office tomorrow at half past one and I'll have you on the phone for you."

Pierce was not the kind of person who trusted others to do what they promised, but he always knew they could count on Elizabeth. She also had contacts with almost all of South Florida.

After the conversation ended, Pierce and Elizabeth spent the rest of the evening learning all about their favorite movies, some post-war politics, and news.

The next day, at 1:20, Pierce Hall arrived at the local college where Elizabeth Booth was an English professor. When Pierce entered Elizabeth's office, he realized how easy it was for him to get through security and find her office. This was unlike the first time he visited Elizabeth in her apartment. Safety in South Beach was impossible to achieve during the war, especially where Elizabeth lived. Not only policemen were on the streets, but military uniforms were found in most corners near their neighborhood.

When Pierce entered Elizabeth's office, he started to say something, but noticed that she was on the phone.

"Here it is Lisa, he just came in. I'll hand over the phone to him and I'm sure he has some questions for you," Elizabeth said into the phone. She continued and gave Pierce the phone. "It's Lisa Porter, the owner of the hotels you told me last night. She was in her beach house in Carolina, but I could find her phone number from a colleague of mine. "

"Hello Mrs. Porter, how are you?"

"Well, Mr. Hale, I would do much better if I had known my investments were the scene of two murders, and when I heard that the police showed up and searched my hotel, I just could not imagine what it will look like this when I come back! "cried the voice on the other end of the phone. Pierce could hardly bear to hear the high, whining voice of Mrs. Porter.

"I'm sorry about all the excitement, Mrs. Porter, but I was wondering if you could help us, do you have any idea who that might be, someone who has access to the rooms in your two hotels?"

"The only person who has access to my two hotels is the cleaning lady," Lisa replied. "Well, he's not a real boy, Skip Daniels is his name, he's 35 years old and terribly weird, but he's leaving." these rooms are lit up. "

After several more minutes of conversation, Pierce collected contact information for Skip Daniels and thanked Mrs. Porter for her help. Pierce then thanked Elizabeth and told her that he was looking for the cleaning boy. Pierce and Elizabeth argued in the next few minutes because Elizabeth thought she was needed for this mission and Pierce never liked to endanger women, especially Elizabeth. As always, Elizabeth won the fight and they went in Pierce's Dodge Coupe from 1938 to Skip Daniel's downtown apartment.

When they reached the run-down complex that looked like part of the bombing in Nazi Germany, Pierce and Elizabeth went to door 5, the apartment where Skip Daniels lived.

Pierce knocked hard on the old wooden door for several minutes without receiving an answer.

"Just break it, Pierce," Elizabeth said emphatically. And so she kicked as hard as she could against the door and knocked her off her hinges.

"I think that's the way to go," Pierce said, a little surprised by her strength.

As they walked through the apartment, Pierce made sure his .38 Police Special pistol was within easy reach. He had not noticed, but Elizabeth took another path through the kitchen as Pierce went to the bedroom.

The apartment seemed to be empty until Pierce entered the crowded bedroom. Black and white images of beautiful women adorned the cracked walls of the bedroom. Pierce was almost disgusted by the number of posters. On each of them was written a note that seemed to be the love messages of a disturbed man. As Pierce continued his way through the bedroom, he heard someone breathe out of the closet. Pierce opened the cupboard and saw a man wearing only his boxer shorts huddled in the corner.

"Skip Daniels, I suppose?" Pierce asked.

"You have nothing of me!" The man cried. "You do not know me, you do not know what I went through! These men do not deserve to have these women in their lives!"

And then Skip Daniels jumped to Pierce Hall without warning and grabbed his gun from the holster. A fight followed, in which the weapon was released. Pierce had always been able to handle criminals in the past, but his body began to age. He took a right hook to his left eye and immediately felt the cracking of his bones.

At that moment, he heard Elizabeth yell, "Get away from him, get away from him, you slime, go away or I'll shoot!"

Pierce had never seen Elizabeth with a gun, but she seemed to know how to use it. Apparently she had seen the fight and had run in to help Pierce. When she saw the gun lying on the ground, she picked it up and took control of the situation.

When the local police brought Skip Daniels to court to bring him to justice, Pierce was able to collect a wealth of information about the man's story in his apartment. It seemed as if Skip had recently made a proposal to his longtime girlfriend, but it was to be rejected. She had apparently cheated on him with another man and Skip felt that he had lost what he rightly owned.

"I think he will go away for a long time," Pierce said, exhausted from the excitement of the day.

"Yes, and you have to thank me for being alive," Elizabeth informed him in a matter-of-fact tone.

"Do you know, Elizabeth Booth, you would make a pretty good private eye and your resistance is in vain!"

And with that, Pierce accompanied Elizabeth to his car and brought her home. He did not know that this would be the first of many cases in which he would rely on Elizabeth Booth to bring criminals to justice.

The stages of US airline deregulation

I. Regulation

Although deregulation of US airlines was initially thought to lead to an increase in the number of airlines whose different service concepts, market segments, fleets and route structures would lead to new competition, traffic growth and lower tariffs, the result was a complete one Cycle and only led to virtual monopoly. During its development, three different stages occurred.

The regulation itself dates back to 1938, when Congress passed the Law on Civil Aviation. The five-member Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB), which was formed two years later, regulated tariffs, approved routes, granted grants and approved interline agreements.

"Regulation by definition replaces the regulator's judgment of the market," said Elizabeth E. Bailey, David R. Graham and Daniel P. Kaplan in their book "Deregulating the Airlines" (MIT Press, 1985). P. 96).

In fact, the environment was such that an airline often had to resort to the purchase of another airline to obtain its route authority. For example, Delta Air Lines, which has long been interested in offering nonstop flights between New York and Florida, has been consistently requesting the CAB to exercise its rights. The regulator, however, felt that Northeast, a small local service company plagued with low traffic, financial losses, and inclement weather due to its route network, needed the revenue potential of the lucrative Florida route to restore health, and instead the authority received.

Undaunted, Delta finally resorted to the acquisition of the regional airline and subsequently received approval on 24 April 1972 for the merger. However, these extremes would not be needed in the near future.

A look into the future was already possible in California and Texas. Since the CAB was not responsible for local air traffic, it was unable to exercise the tariff or track authority for domestic airlines and these airlines. Typically, it offered a high-frequency, clean-cut, no frills service at half the tariffs to which regulated "trunk" companies were forced to charge consistently for both revenue and traffic growth.

For example, Air California and PSA Pacific Southwest Airlines, operating in the Los Angeles-San Francisco market, saw annual traffic increase from 1.5 million passengers in 1960 to 3.2 million in 1965. Southwest Airlines based in Texas also offered cheap flights between Dallas and Houston and other Texas points. These airlines have shown that real deregulation can lead to tariffs that are accessible to average income passengers, enable a wider choice of carriers and service concepts, and increase traffic.

Passengers and the government increasingly denied regulation in the mid-1970s, citing the examples of Air California, PSA, Southwest and other domestic airlines as evidence that deregulation could benefit passengers and passengers to their mutual benefit. At least that was the theory.

Eventually, President Jimmy Carter signed the Airline Deregulation Act on October 28, 1978, eliminating the need for CAB approval for route entry and exit and reducing most of the current fare restrictions. Even these would eventually be eliminated when the Civil Aviation Authority was disbanded in its now famous "Sunset" in 1985.

At the time of the event, eleven "trunk" carriers at that time controlled 87.2 percent of the domestic passenger miles (RPMs), while 12 regional, 258 commuter, five supplemental and four intra-data packages compensated for the RPM distribution. What would cover the sky if the dust of deregulation had settled?

II. Deregulation

Stage One: New Generation Airlines:

Like the domestic airlines in California and Texas, an increasing number of non-traditional, deregulation-induced airlines infiltrated the US market. The first of these, Midway Airlines, was the first to receive certification following the passing of the Airline Deregulation Act, and the first to begin service in 1979.

Midway was founded three years earlier by Irwing Tague, a former Hughes Airwest manager, and in November of that same year launched the low-fare high-frequency Rainbow Jet service from Midway's underutilized Chicago Airport, which was once the only airfield in the city By the time O & # 39; Hare was built and Midway wanted to be resurrected in the same way as Southwest on Dallas' Love Field – with five single-grade, 86-passenger, former TWA DC-9-10s, first to Cleveland, Detroit and Kansas City , The low-price structure promoted rapid growth and strategically hoped to penetrate the Chicago market without attracting O & # 39; Hare's competition from established airlines.

However, as an Midway employee, the author can confirm that he has quickly learned three important lessons, suggesting that he must remain extremely flexible in order to survive under the prevailing competitive conditions of the market:

Although it served a secondary airport in the Chicago area, it was still primarily competing in the Chicago market.

Secondly, the load factors declined as incumbents lowered their tariffs.

Finally, the high-density, low-price strategy that had become a major feature of deregulation attempts was ineffective as an airline attempted to serve a particular market segment, such as the higher-yielding business, which offered more comfort and security. Service was expected.

As a result, Midway changed its strategy by introducing a conservative cream-colored finish. Business cabin seating for four in a classroom with greater legroom; additional hand luggage room; and improved free on-board wine service in exchange for higher than the Rainbow Jet fares, but still under the unrestricted bus rates of major airlines.

The newly implemented strategy called "Midway Metrolink" significantly reduced the number of seats per aircraft. For example, while the DC-9-10 and -30 carried 86 and 115 passengers, respectively, they were reconfigured for 60 and 84 as part of the new Metrolink strategy.

Apparently successful, it triggered explosive growth, from initially 56,040 passengers in 1979 to nearly 1.2 million in 1983.

Capitol Air, another deregulatory converted airline in which the author also participated, also experienced initial rapid expansion. The company, founded in 1946 as Capitol Airways, had undertaken domestic charter flights with Curtiss C-46 Commandos and DC-4s, eventually acquiring larger L-049 Constellations and becoming World Airways, Overseas National (ONA), the fifth largest US subsidiary in 1950, Trans International (TIA) and Universal. It acquired in January 1960, the first of the largest used Super Constellation fleets and finally operated in the 14 years from 1955 to 1968 17 L-749, L-1049G and L-1049H.

The charter airline Capitol International Airways received its first pure jet, a DC-8-30, in September 1963, and subsequently ran four versions of the McDonnell-Douglas design, including the -30, -50, -. Series 61 and -63, which replaced the Lockheed Constellation as a workhorse of their fleet.

Capitol received the planned approval in September 1978 and opened the New York-Brussels service on May 5 of the following year and the second transatlantic sector Chicago / Boston-Brussels on June 19. was not regulated by the CAB and therefore carried out its own "deregulation experiment", sublimating the proven charter economy of high-density single-class tariffs, low unrestricted tariffs and even standby tariffs, to achieve low seat mile costs and profitability.

The planned concept with the brand name "Sky Saver Service" always ensured above-average demand and triggered a significant expansion of the fleet and the route system. By 1982, six DC-8-61s, five DC-8-63s and five DC-10-10s were deployed from a New York-JFK hub to seven domestic, three Caribbean and three European passenger base locations: 611,400 passengers in 1980 , 1,150,000 in 1981 and 1,824,000 in 1982.

Passengers who did not know about deregulated airlines, whose low tariffs could only lead to profitability with second-hand aircraft, high-density seats and non-union employees with lower wages, often criticized Capitol Air's and the non-interline policies Refusal to provide meals and hotel rooms during this time delays and compensation for missed connections with other airlines. Nonetheless, New York-Los Angeles market rates ranged from $ 149 unlimited on a return trip to $ 189, while the majors' unlimited fares on the market were $ 450. As a result Capitol Air utilization factors exceeded 90 percent.

By September 1981, ten new air carriers received the operating permit and the dedicated service.

"The first effects of deregulation were dramatic," Anthony Sampson wrote in "Empires of the Sky: The Politics, Competitions and Cartels of World Airlines" (Random House, 1984, p. 136). "A new generation of operators saw the possibility of expanding small businesses or setting up instant airlines that could outperform tariffs on local routes, forgoing much of the construction and bureaucracy of major airlines, and using their flexibility to hit the giants at their weakest points where they could return quickly. "

It created four types of airlines, which had a significant impact on the traditionally regulated aviation industry.

The first were deregulation-led launches such as Air Atlanta, Air Florida, Air One, Altair, America West, Best, Carnival, Empire, Florida Express, Frontier Horizon, Jet America, Midway, Midwest Express, MGM Grand Air and Morris Air , Muse Air, New York Air, Northeastern International, Pacific East Air, Pacific Express, PEOPLExpress, President, Reno Air, SunJet International, Hawaii Express and ValuJet.

The second were deregulation-driven local services companies, including Allegheny, Frontier, Hughes Airwest, North Central, Ozark, Piedmont, Southern and Texas International, which quickly outperformed their previous regulatory concentrations.

The third group, the cross-border airlines, included companies such as Air California (later AirCal), Alaska, Aloha, Hawaii, PSA, Southwest and Vienna Air Alaska.

The fourth was the deregulation-transformed charter aircraft such as Capitol Air, Trans International (later Transamerica) and World Airways.

Although some of these airlines, notably Air One and MGM Grand Air, aimed at very specific market niches with premium seats and services, the vast majority of airlines, regardless of whether they grew up, grew or matured through deregulative parenthood a profitability of multi-core assets including, of course, low unrestricted fares, one-haul, short- to medium-haul routes, high-density seats, restricted on-board service, lower wages for union-free workers and medium-haul aircraft. Medium capacity trijets such as the 727, and small-capacity and short-range twinjets such as the BAC-111, the DC-9, the 737, and the F.28.

All achieved high utilization factors, generated enormous traffic in existing and emerging markets and created considerable competition.

"In this regard," Barbara Sturken Peterson and James Glab wrote in their book "Rapid Descent: Deregulation and the Shakeout in the Airlines" (Simon and Schuster, 1994, p. 307), "deregulation seemed like magic."

Stage two: Monopoly:

Although the established, traditionally regulated major airlines have temporarily lowered their tariffs in selected markets with high deregulation and airline concentration in order to maintain their passenger base, established airlines, which have long been promoted and protected by regulation, were not in favor of viable operations structured them. But even in those cases where they managed to push competition out of the market, another cheap upstart seemed to be waiting in the starting blocks to fill the gap.

The incumbent carriers therefore had the choice to abandon carefully developed markets or crack financial resources to withhold passengers until they themselves slip into bankruptcy. It quickly became apparent that the tariff reductions triggered by deregulation would become a permanent feature of the "new" unregulated aviation industry, and the major airlines eventually realized that they needed to fundamentally restructure or succumb to the new generation of airlines. Almost every aspect of their activity would eventually change.

The first aspect addressed was the track system. These route systems traditionally consisted of point-to-point nonstop services originating in the 1940 and 1950 CAB route entitlements. In fact, they did not contain any inherent "system" and instead consisted of unbalanced geographical contexts leading to revenue losses for other airlines and inefficient, inefficient use of existing fleets. What was really needed was a central "collection point" for self-nutrition.

On the basis of bilateral agreements, European airlines operated the first "hubs" that, for example, transported passengers from Copenhagen to Athens via an interconnection point such as Dusseldorf. Any passenger flying the Copenhagen-Dusseldorf or Athens-Dusseldorf sector could theoretically switch to one of the airlines' outward-pointing flight spokes, significantly increasing the number of potentially-served markets. These European hubs also showed increased aircraft utilization, improved traffic flow, a larger market base than conventional point-to-point services, which could only have been supported by start and end traffic, and the retention of the connecting passenger.

"Although passengers prefer frequent nonstop service, such service can be quite costly," said Bailey, Graham, and Kaplan (p. 74). "Airlines are therefore faced with strong incentives to build hub-and-spoke operations … By combining passengers with different origins and destinations, an airline can increase the average number of passengers per flight and thereby reduce costs At the same time, hub-and-spoke operation provides a more convenient service for travelers in less-traveled markets. "

The first US hub had its origins in the 1940s, when the government awarded Delta some viable long-haul routes in return for agreeing to supply several small communities from Atlanta while trying to enter the South.

"All of these routes have become" spokes "leading to a delta hub in Atlanta," says Peterson and Glab (p. 120). "This was associated with the convincing advantage of passenger connection."

Allegheny, a former Pittsburgh-based local service carrier with no specific long-term development plan, has made significant gains on its east and mid-Atlantic route network, which has gradually "developed" due to its funnel in Pennsylvania. Improving the balance between the predominantly commercial and short-haul network with longer-range and recreational destinations continued to drive this development and in 1978, 73 percent of the passengers were connected. In 1981, this number rose to 89 percent, which means that 89 percent of the passengers to Philadelphia and Pittsburgh did not fly to Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.

The hubs Delta and Allegheny were just the beginning of the phenomenon, as the concept has created more than just a concentration of airlines in a given city. Instead, this resulted in a definitive monopolistic strangulation that excluded any competition.

For example, at four of the major US hubs (Atlanta, Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas-Fort Worth and Denver), "the two largest airlines simply marginalized or made virtually impossible the expansion of other airlines to gain market share," wrote Julius Maldutis in the airline competition at the 50 largest US airports since deregulation (Salomon Brothers, Inc., 1987, p. 4).

In Atlanta, where both Delta and Eastern hubs used to be, the possibility of significant third-party competition was ruled out. For example, in 1978 Delta's hub traffic percentages were 49.65% and Eastern 39.17%, and nine years later those values ​​had risen to 52.51% and 42.24%.

The analysis of the 50 largest airports (accounting for 81.1 percent of US planned passenger numbers) revealed that only ten of these airports could have been considered less concentrated. On the other hand, 40 (or 80 per cent) of the airports were overly concentrated. The ten most concentrated airports had an airline with a passenger share of more than 66 percent.

In St. Louis, where both TWA and Ozark had hubs, the former had a market share of 39.06 percent, while the latter had a market share of 20.21 percent in 1978. In 1986, these numbers rose to 63.16 and 19.68 percent, respectively. The following year, after TWA acquired Ozark, its only other major competitor, it converted that share to 82.34 percent, with nine other domestic US airlines sharing the remaining 17.66 percent. An airline computer list listing all airlines operating between the three major New York airports and St. Louis on December 1, 1995 revealed 27 flights that day. None of them was operated by another airline than TWA! That was power.

Similarly, the deregulation of the Piedmont, which in 1977 held only 10.19 percent of the market in Charlotte, North Carolina, did so a decade later, giving it a monopoly value of 87.87 percent after establishing a hub there. The same conversion took place in Pittsburgh with Allegheny / USAir / US Airways-43.65 percent in 1977 and 82.83 percent in 1987.

"Since a large proportion of city pairs markets can not support convenient nonstop service, hub-and-spoke operations have proven to be the dominant strategy of airlines since deregulation," Bailey, Graham and Kaplan write (p. 196). "There has been a significant shift from the regulatory vision of linear systems to sunbursts of routes."

Apart from the hubbing concept, the major airlines have made some other fundamental changes. For example, airplanes have been reconfigured for higher density seating and, in some cases, for seating in a class, while business cabins have expanded first class and coaches on selected routes. First-class cabins were later completely replaced by business-class cabins in a trend pattern triggered by some deregulation specialty airlines.

Inefficient aircraft types were gradually replaced by new-generation designs, and daily occupancy increased from 8.6 hours in 1971 to 10.3 hours in 1979. In the 1970s and early 1980s, average aircraft size increased in long-haul sectors, while in increased in the late 1980s. In the 1980s, the size increased in all categories. In the early 1990s, pure-jet technology penetrated all markets for the first time – from 50-passenger regional aircraft to 500-passenger intercontinental aircraft.

Employment was also transformed. According to Robert Crandall, former chairman and chief executive officer of American Airlines, "deregulation is deeply hostile to work … there has been a massive transfer of wealth from airline employees to airline passengers."

The deregulation of airlines' tariff reductions has resulted in a lower revenue and earnings base from which funds have been diverted to traditionally high salaries and benefits packages. This required higher levels of employee productivity, over-reliance, part-time, union and profit-sharing schemes. In some cases, employment was actually provided by contracted primary care companies to reduce benefits. The author participated in the first ground service experiment at JFK International Airport between Triangle Aviation Services and Royal Jordanian Airlines.

"As a relatively new but rapidly evolving concept, the service provider provides the staff on a contractual basis to the respective carrier, for which, according to Airport-Based Airline Careers (Hicksville, New York, 1995, p. 9)," The Service Company then the staff, run the training programs (if any) and set the hourly pay and benefits package. "

After wearing Royal Jordanian's uniform and performing all ground operations, I often felt "trapped in the middle" and at the same time tried to please both the passenger and the airline. After all, they were both my clients and exposed the inherent conflict of the concept.

Lower wages and perks for airlines go back to Crandall himself, who has devised a plan to reduce employment costs with a "B-scale" payment system that initially provided lower salaries and longer life expectancy to newly hired employees. Achieve the higher "A" scale "Levels.

"American (myself) was ready to grow in size tremendously, and it had a strong incentive to do so," said Peterson and Glab (p. 136). "The more it expanded, the more workers it would hire – all at lower wages on the B-scale – and the more its average cost would go down."

According to Bailey, Graham and Kaplan, regulation in its Deregulating the Airlines work has created above-industry monetary and performance compensation. "It is now clear that inflexible labor rules and higher wages flourished as competitive during regulation, and airline employees seem to have benefited greatly from CAB's protections." (P. 197)

Another need, which was triggered by the deregulation, was the increasing dependence on automation. American Airlines, also headed by Crandall, created the first computerized flight reservation system, Saber, which was immediately followed by United's Apollo system. As a powerful sales tool, these automated systems were purchased by travel agents who paid a different fee to their owners for each booking, while smaller airlines had to negotiate for representation.

These systems were so sophisticated and diverse that their information was gradually sublimated in every aspect of flight operations. The "reservation modes" include reservations, itineraries, fares, hotel, touring and ground transportation bookings, frequent flyer tracking and ticketing; their "Departure Control Systems" (DCS), which enable the check-in of passengers and the issuing of boarding passes; and their "control modes," which use this information for the weight and balance of the aircraft, as well as for the creation of loading plans and bills.

Only with these ingenious flight reservation systems have airlines been able to implement yield management programs, ie the determination of the optimal balance between low passenger fares and profitable maximum prices, based on seasonality, time of departure and demand, comfort, capacity and competition, in order to make a profitable flight to produce. For example, in a consultation of the flight reservation system on December 1, 1995, American Airlines listed 27 separate fares between New York and Los Angeles, ranging from an unrestricted price of $ 1,741.82 for a simple first-class ride to a strong one limited return fare of $ 226.36. On the codes in the column "Tarifbasis", z. For example, "KPE7HOLN" was accessed to reveal the inherent limitations – whose expression included multiple pages!

Another fundamental change for the deregulated industry was the structure as well as the relationship of regional and commuter transport companies to majors. With history sometimes being cyclical, local airline companies have proven to be in the habit of relinquishing small, sparse routes when they once again bought jet aircraft, but now with two main differences: (1). Today's regional offices have never been restricted to these routes by regulation, and (2). Although they were rapidly expanding with their own fleets of pure jet, they were trying to coexist with the majors through code-sharing arrangements in which their planes appeared in large colors and their flights carried the two letters of the affiliated airline, rather than competing with them codes ,

Out of the 300 destinations Delta landed at the end of 1995, 85 were reached by one of the four code-share airlines Delta Connection, including Atlantic Southeast Airlines (ASA), Business Express, Comair, and Skywest – the first to join this time had no pure jet equipment possessed. Outwardly, Americans bought their own commuter delivery airlines and called them "American Eagle" together.

Nevertheless, the restructuring required by the liberalization of the main airlines was completed.

When TWA complied with Capitol Air's unrestricted transcontinental bus fares, the previous addendum recorded 30 passenger bookings in DC 8-61 aircraft, which otherwise could accommodate 252 people, and canceled its flights. In a similar situation, the established utilization factors of USAir and upstart PEOPLExpress on the Buffalo Newark market were consistently lower by at least 20 points between August 1981 and June 1982.

"The data suggests that many consumers have opted to travel with the airline with greater notoriety and facilities if the fare is the same," Bailey, Graham and Kaplan continue (p. 106).

Finally, the competition forced Capitol Air to realign its route system to include an increasing number of ethnic, underserved and underserved markets until the majors entered the area and the airline had no choice but to apply for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection and to cease operations on 25 November 1984.

Halfway there was also an opposition of the Major Carrier. Regardless of the strategy with which the company defines its optimal niche, it has always been counteracted by the aggressive majors. With the acquisition of Air Florida in 1984, the aircraft was reconfigured with seats in two classes. On both sides of a seesaw, however, the company soon returned to the single class and back in November 1989 back in the double class at this time, they operated an 82-member fleet with the affiliation "Midway Connection" and carried 5.2 million passengers per year.

But over-expansion and the attempt to replace Eastern at its Philadelphia hub in economically bad times in direct competition with USAir led to its own decline two years later, on November 13th.

"Obwohl diese zahlreichen Strategien auf eine ständige Neubewertung ihres ordnungsgemäßen Verlaufs hindeuteten, wiesen sie auch auf die Instabilität der Marktbedingungen in deregulierten Luft und die Entschlossenheit der Fluggesellschaft hin, in diesen zu bleiben, und auf ihre Widerstandsfähigkeit, sie mit einer Gegenüberstellung von Servicekonzepten, Kabinenkonfigurationen und Sitzen zu steuern Dichten und Marketingstrategien "nach The McDonnell-Douglas DC-9 (Hicksville, New York, 1991, S. 59).

Capitol Air und Midway waren nur zwei Beispiele für liberalisierte Fluggesellschaften, die den radikal umstrukturierten Majors erlegen waren. Von den rund 100 Fluggesellschaften, die seit der Verabschiedung des Airline Deregulation Act zertifiziert worden waren, war Ende 1995 nur noch eine, America West, in Betrieb.

"(Die großen Fluggesellschaften) setzten eine Strategie um, mit der sie den Wettbewerb der Billigflieger in ihrem eigenen Spiel schlagen konnten, indem sie trotz hoher Verluste auf bestimmten Strecken vergleichbare Tarife aggressiv ausweiteten und in Rechnung stellten, um in einigen Fällen die Preise zu halten , um Marktanteile zurückzugewinnen … Die großen Fluggesellschaften wurden mächtig und monopolistisch, indem sie den Wettbewerb dort ausschlossen, wo er auftrat ", so das Austrian Airlines Passagier-Handling-Handbuch (JFK, Hicksville, New York, 1990, S. 10-11).

Stufe Drei: Megaträger:

Sobald die Erweiterung der Fluglinie in Gang gesetzt war, schien sie sich selbst zu treiben und der Trägheit zu widerstehen. Monopole kennen per Definition keine Grenzen. Der logische nächste Schritt war die Marktdurchdringung im Ausland.

Im Gegensatz zum US-Inlandswachstum "war es für eine US-Fluggesellschaft viel schwieriger, Zugang zu einem neuen Auslandsmarkt zu erhalten als zu einem neuen Inlandsmarkt, da die internationalen Luftverkehrsdienste noch immer durch bilaterale Abkommen zwischen den USA und ausländischen Regierungen streng geregelt waren ", schrieben Peterson und Glab (S. 283). "… Um unmittelbare Betriebsrechte für ein fremdes Land zu erlangen, musste ein US-Luftfahrtunternehmen die Streckenbehörde von einer anderen US-Fluggesellschaft kaufen."

Es wird daran erinnert, dass es sich bei dem Phänomen um eine virtuelle Wiederholung der inländischen Regierungsstruktur der USA vor der Deregulierung handelte. Ein solcher Kauf wurde im letzteren Fall in der Regel nur gewährt, wenn sich die von der Fluglinie zugelassene Fluggesellschaft in finanziellen Schwierigkeiten befand und die durch den Verkauf erzielten Einnahmen zur Aufrechterhaltung der Rentabilität benötigt wurden.

Pan Am war insbesondere von den Deregulierungseffekten betroffen und musste seinen lukrativen Geschäftsbereich Pazifik zusammen mit Flugzeugen und Bodeneinrichtungen für 750 Millionen US-Dollar an United verkaufen, um flott zu bleiben. United, schon damals eine große, finanziell gesunde Fluggesellschaft, verfügte jetzt über ein globales Streckennetz mit angemessener Inlandszufuhr.

Wichtiger als der Verkauf waren jedoch die weitreichenden Auswirkungen. "Der Kauf der Pacific Division von Pan Am durch United Airlines sollte einen Dominoeffekt auslösen", so Peterson und Glab (S. 148) Northwest wusste, dass es ein wesentlich größeres eigenes Heimnetzwerk brauchen würde, und der schnellste Weg, dies zu erreichen, wäre eine Fusion. "

Bis Ende 1986 hatte sie genau das getan, indem sie Republic erwarb, die 1979 aus der Fusion von North Central und Southern und 1980 aus der sekundären Übernahme von Hughes Airwest hervorgegangen war, und Northwest mit dem Status eines Monopolisten an allen Drehkreuzen belohnte wie Minneapolis mit einem Marktanteil von 81,55 Prozent.

Delta befürchtete, mit Fluggesellschaften dieser Größenordnung nicht mithalten zu können, und erwarb Western Airlines im September 1986 für 860 Millionen US-Dollar, um eine Streckenstruktur von Küste zu Küste und neue Drehkreuze in Salt Lake City und Los Angeles zu erhalten.

Der bereits beschriebene TWA-Ozark-Zusammenschluss führte zu einer solchen Sperre für St. Louis, dass drei Viertel aller Flugsteige kontrolliert wurden und in den Märkten, in denen keine Konkurrenz bestand, deutlich höhere Flugpreise festgestellt werden konnten.

Tatsächlich dienten diese Fusionen nur dazu, den schon fast unerbittlichen Griff eines Trägers an einer bestimmten Nabe zu festigen. Deregulation-spawned Empire, for instance-a rapidly-expanding New York State Fokker F.28 Fellowship operator-adopted a Syracuse hub and recorded an initial 1979 market share of just.75 percent, but this exponentially increased to 27.36 percent in 1985 when Piedmont acquired the growing regional. Two years later, its market share climbed to 39.82 percent. However, when USAir in turn purchased Piedmont, the Syracuse hub lock skyrocketed to over 61 percent.

Perhaps the most encompassing (and disjointed) merger was that between PEOPLExpress and Continental, which itself had already been the result of an amalgamation between the original, pre-deregulation Continental, Texas International, and New York Air. PEOPLExpress had equally already absorbed Denver-based Frontier. Texas Air, owner of the new conglomerate, also acquired Eastern, but retained its separate identity.

All these mergers, consummated during the latter half of 1986, unequivocally produced the "megacarrier."

"Deregulation's theme, echoing Darwinian philosophy, clearly demonstrated itself to be 'survival of the fittest,' which, for the airlines, translated as 'survival of the largest,' according to the Austrian Airlines Passenger Service Manual-JFK (p. 10). "If the long-established major carriers… wished to survive and maintain the markets they had so carefully nurtured during regulation, they would somehow have to implement a strategy which would ensure that they would remain 'large.'"

The major airlines' fundamental restructuring, beginning with monopoly and ending with megacarrier, constituted that strategy, as carriers tracing their origins to the infantile days of aviation and bearing names virtually synonymous with the industry fell like a string of acquisition-induced dominoes. By 1995 only seven US megacarriers remained, including American, Continental, Delta, Northwest, TWA, United, and USAir, along with two significant majors-America West and Southwest-a few "niche" airlines, and the regional-commuters which were almost exclusively aligned with one of the megacarriers or majors through code-share agreements.

Even these names disappeared early in the 21st century. Like brides and grooms walking down a monopoly-destined aisle, Delta married Northwest, United took Continental as its lawfully wedded, American joined arms with US Airways, and Southwest tied the knot with AirTran.

III. Conclusion

Although the examples set by Air California, PSA, and Southwest had indicated that a deregulated environment would ultimately prove to be mutually advantageous to both the operating airline and the passenger, these experiments failed to approximate actual conditions, since the rest of the US airline industry was still regulated and these fledgling airlines had therefore been insulated from major-carrier competition. Lacking the authority, cost structure, and equipment, they had been unable to launch comparable service of their own.

The initial proliferation of small, low-fare, no-frills, non-unionized deregulation-spawned, -bred, and -transformed airlines provided tremendous airline-, fare-, and service concept-choice only until the major carriers implemented their fundamental route system, aircraft, employment, computerized reservation system, and regional airline affiliation restructuring, reversing the expansion phase into one of buyout, merger, bankruptcy, retrenchment, consolidation, monopoly, and, ultimately, megacarrier. The upstarts, having lacked the majors' name recognition, financial strength, frequent flier marketing tools, and size, invariably succumbed, leaving most of the original dominant airlines, although in greatly modified form, until even these surrendered to prevailing forces. US airline deregulation had thus come full cycle.

The latest developments at Long Island MacArthur Airport

1. Declining numbers:

The Long Island MacArthur Airport, owned by the city of Islip, has been in a vicious circle since its inception. The airlines have been reluctant to offer flights because of the shortage of passengers while the passengers were reluctant to use the airport because the airlines did not provide the service they wanted. Over the past half decade, this phenomenon has practically nullified its existence.

Although 1.8 million passengers in the eastern Nassau and Suffolk county catch an average of 3.7 annual trips, these favorable facts end here, as only 25 percent of them use MacArthur for their travels. This statistic will increase to 50 percent if only nonstop services are considered.

During the five-year period from 2007 to 2012, the number of annual departures decreased from 14,784 to 7,930. This is the strongest reduction of all mid-sized US airfields. As a result, the Long Island site was virtually attributed to the status of 1999, the year of Southwest Airlines, which triggered the latest growth cycle.

In addition to being victim to the recession and fuel costs like these other terminals, in the past it was forced to operate in the shadow of the three major New York airports, relying almost entirely on the same market for a single carrier. Southwest, for his service. The growing trend towards airline consolidation has also meant that fewer potential airline service providers have operated almost all from the airport in the past, while current fuel prices made the operation of their code-share regional jets unprofitable, which led to the airlines' withdrawal – which was vital Turntable supplies delivered, such as Atlantic Southeast (ASA) to Atlanta, Comair to Cincinnati and Continental Express to Cleveland.

To deviate from the philosophy of being underserved, operating over-priced secondary airports on which the company was founded, and responding to passenger demand for market presence, Southwest has gradually phased aircraft assets from smaller to larger cities to maximize revenue but it has been mined. Much of the Islip market it created itself was cultivated.

Southwest pointed out that this strategy reflected system-wide changes in the industry rather than just MacArthur.

However, the Long Island market includes factors that go beyond system-wide industry trends. Encouraged by the additional slots that La Guardia Airport had received following the acquisition of AirTran, Southwest itself increased the frequencies and destinations of the airport with higher yield and higher utilization factor.

After 34 daily departures from Long Island, the presence was gradually reduced and flight operations on two of its capitals, namely Nashville and Las Vegas, set. As a result, the air connections they represented were lifted.

When the Chicago Midway service was discontinued in June 2012 and relocated to La Guardiia, the number of flights to 18 had almost halved.

While he was credited with reviving the airport, he had become an obstacle to growth in many ways. Due to its dominance and low price structure, it served as a deterrent to other airlines considering flights there, especially on routes such as Florida, where it holds a monopoly. However, as if on a tightrope walk, Islip City officials have always made considerable efforts to maintain a close relationship with the airline, as the airport's future depends on it.

However, this future does not just depend on the number of passengers and passengers. It also depends on the financial – and these were anything but optimistic. For example, during the three-year period from 2010 to 2012, the airport lost nearly $ 4.2 million and had to spend $ 11 million on the sale of land on Long Island Rail Road in 2009 to offset the deficit as well as attracting companies to lease store fronts in the terminal; to levy a general aviation landing fee for the first time; and reduce the number of employees and overtime.

What is needed, however, are more far-reaching strategies to turn the tide. Is there any according to the prevailing conditions?

2. Infrastructure improvements and suggestions:

Long Island MacArthur Airport as the region's economic engine can only continue to operate if the city of Islip is looking for innovative ways to win over the airline that operates it and has therefore made a number of infrastructure improvements.

On the land side, a US $ 10.6 million terminal lane reorientation was initiated and started in September 2011 to divert and streamline vehicle traffic. These included the introduction of an island with a building front and a 750-foot canopy to facilitate the delivery of passengers and pick-ups from private and public transport. The project also included lighting, drainage and a safety checkpoint for vehicles.

Financed by passenger fees collected through ticket sales, it was completed two years later, Jan. 10, with a budget of $ 300,000.

Another land project took place on the west side of the airport along Smithtown Avenue. The demolition of 52,000 square meters of outdated and unsightly wood, steel and concrete block structures was designed to attract businesses and operators who are deterred by the existing plague.

Of its three fixed-line operators, Sheltair agreed to invest $ 20 million over a seven-year period in a 40-year lease for 25 of its 36 hectares, paving the way for the construction of 29,000 square feet of office space and 161,000 square feet of office space Hangar room.

ExcelAire also signed a 40-year lease to provide $ 4.5 million for the modernization of its facilities. Hawthorne Global Aviation, based in Charleston, South Carolina, has recently demolished a neighboring building and plans to expand the office and hangar area by 32,000 square meters to accommodate the new generation of ultra-large business aircraft B. the Bombardier Global Express , the Gulfstream 650 and the Falcon 7X.

Within the airport, Mid-Island Air Service followed with its own lease and refurbishment agreement.

The reorientation of the roadway on land was a reconfiguration of the runway in the airspace. A $ 4.5 million subsidy to the airport, of which 95 percent came from the FAA and the other five percent from the Department of Transportation of the state and city, facilitated the rationalization of aircraft taxiing onto Runway 33L. and reduced turns, times and fuel consumption. The project included the extension of Taxiway B, the redesign of Taxiway E and the installation of airport signs, lights and lane markings.

Rosemar Contracting of Patchogue (runway construction), JKL Engineering of Maryland (runway design) and Savik and Murray of Ronkonkoma (removal of runway obstacles and equipment) were awarded a contract.

Other projects that resulted from the airport's short-, medium-, and long-term master plans included a light rail that connected the terminal to Long Island Rail Road Station, and the extension to 7,000 feet per second runway to the airport Increase the security of existing operations and attract new operations with greater reach.

It has even been proposed to turn the airport into an international gateway. MacArthur's longtime advocate Charles Schumer launched a public campaign to that end on June 10, 2013, calling on US Customs and Border Protection agencies to set up a one-gate facility for airlines to operate flights to the Bahamas and Aruba , often requested destinations with sun and sand.

The campaign, fueled by the expressions of interest sent by Interjet, a low-cost Mexican airline, and FlyA, a low-cost but only proposed European long-distance operator, could significantly expand the airport's operating environment.

Although a Department of Homeland Security regularly reviewed the need for such requests, its own resources were already very tight, and it was unlikely that they would be potential, not really needed, facilities that could be used immediately at the adequately equipped New York airports These flights were available without infrastructure changes.

These ambitious proposals led to a separate Catch-22 situation, much like the airport's fiendish passenger cycle. While they might have been able to win new airlines and routes, it was virtually impossible to justify their costs if the decline in traffic barely required the existing ones.

3. Airlines:

Although these infrastructure upgrades and promising proposals may have improved airline operating experience, it was ultimately the city's ability to attract the airlines that would pump the lifeblood into the Long Island regional airport. Several significant efforts have therefore been made to do so.

A. Existing airlines:

It was unlikely that the aircraft, after being repositioned at La Guardia airport in the southwestern United States, whose recent presence was only a shadow of the highest, would increase frequencies or service new destinations under prevailing economic conditions.

Nevertheless, it emphasized its continued commitment to the regional airfield. A provision in his 25-year contract could theoretically have allowed him to cease all services after a decade, but had no plans for doing so.

On the contrary, despite significant savings, 68 percent of the workload experienced two years ago was gradually increased to 92 due to its service cost reduction strategy. And although the simultaneous presence of La Guardia and MacArthur seemed to dilute the same market, their respective business and leisure outlooks dispelled that perception.

However, the city of Islip was successful in negotiating a new service with another existing airline, US Airways.

As the original tenant of MacArthur – and thus the longest serving of his time – Allegheny, who was later renamed USAir, forced the cancellation of his original service after the flight restrictions imposed by the 2001 terrorist attacks. The route itself, the second to Philadelphia, was facilitated by a slot exchange with Delta at La Guardia.

To commemorate the first of two daily 50-passenger CRJ-200 regional jets operated by Air Wisconsin on March 25, 2012, the airport's fire trucks christened it with a water curtain after 12:50. Landing.

According to NewstagTom Croci, head of the city of Islip, said, "I look forward to working with our senators and congressmen to ensure that the jewel of our city, Long Island MacArthur Airport, receives the resources and attention that are needed to exploit its full potential. "

The plane, which makes the vital inner-city connection to the country's capital and makes the one-hour train journey from Southwest's equivalent Baltimore service obsolete, was again separated at 13:28.

Senator Charles Schumer commented that the new connection only confirms that Long Island is an untapped market. Although US Airways carried only between six and seven percent of its traffic, it was considered disproportionately important due to the business and hub orientation of its routes.

B. New airlines:

Moving existing airlines to the opening of the service was just one side of the city's strategy. The other was to attract new ones, and to that end, the Long Island Association, the largest corporate and civic organization, expressed interest in a possible service by sending a letter to three airlines: the aforementioned US Airways and JetBlue and Air Canada.

Although the southwest effect of stimulating demand and expansion at airports for which MacArthur was originally responsible has left its mark for most of the last decade, its reduction has reversed this trend, and JetBlue, a similar, low-cost, low-cost, low-cost airliner Bells and whistles were thought to have the same positive influence.

Having flooded the New York area with presence in New York City's three major airports and the two secondary airports, White Plains & # 39; Westchester County and Newburghs Stewart International, Islip was one of three new destinations to be served recently.

Schumer, a major contributor to his original New York service in the late 1990s, and equipped with 75 slots for realistic upstate routes, considered the Long Island airfield JetBlue's "missing piece of the puzzle". Together with the former city councilor of Islip, Phil Nolan, he emphasized his support in working with the airline and the state and local authorities to conclude a deal.

Dave Barger, CEO of JetBlue, was personally accompanied by Schumer and received a three-hour visit to the airport, an integral part of the airline's evaluation process. Schumer passed about 30 departing passengers, introduced him, and signaled that he wanted to persuade him to open the service, and called for spontaneous applause.

Due to the 2.9 million inhabitants of the districts of Nassau and Suffolk, Barger considered the region a "decent city". As the Caribbean was the intended growth area of ​​the airline, he felt the Caribbean and Latin American population structure of the airport as favorable.

While JetBlue reflected its southwestern competitors in many ways, it has become a likeness, at least with the Long Island facility. The company won an auction for eight slots at La Guardia airport and instead committed its New York flight capacity.

Despite the seemingly disappointing result, Barger emphasized that the optimal conditions are not about whether, but rather when, the service will be provided to Islip.

Another city-served airline that had already been interested in Islip was Air Canada.

Market surveys revealed that 58 percent of passengers in the airport's catchment area had reason to fly to Canada, while more than 30 commercial areas occupying 4,200 hectares within the control of the city of Islip further reinforced the need for such a route. In 2011, the mutual trade of the State of New York amounted to 34.8 billion US dollars.

In particular, a connection to Toronto was considered a win-win strategy. As the airline's 60th cross-border connection, it would be able to afford congested airport and airspace operations, thereby minimizing fuel costs and delays while allowing passengers access to its main hub, thereby facilitating Canadian, European and Asian air connections. As there were already pre-checks on immigration and customs in Canada, MacArthur did not require any changes.

But the dominance of La Guardia has once again reduced it to a footnote. Since WestJet, its strongest competitor, had just received eight slots at New York Airport, it was wiser to focus its assets there to hold its market share than to relocate it to Long Island.

Alaska's PenAir, the penultimate airline with which the city explored new services, was bearing more fruit.

The FAA's Air Carrier Incentive Plan, which included reduced fees for newcomers or the creation of new routes, has helped save $ 120,000 in office, rental, operating and property costs, or a two-year equivalent. if this plan was continued the service for two years thereafter.

PenAir replaced the multi-day Business Express and subsequent American Eagle Saab 340 in Boston-Logan, but was discontinued in 2008. On 25 July 2013, PenAir launched two daily scenic flights with the same turboprop equipment. The growing northeastern route network included Bar Harbor, Plattsburgh and Presque Isle.

The flights started at 20:40 and at 19:10. originating in Boston at 19.00 and 17.30 One-way introductory prices were set at $ 119.

The last contacted airline, Allegiant Air, also brought its wings to Long Island.

"Las Vegas-based Allegiant Travel Company," said the press release, "focuses on connecting small city travelers with world-class leisure destinations and operates a highly efficient, low-fare passenger airline for all jets." The subsidiary Allegiant Air also offers other travel-related products such as hotel rooms, rental cars and attraction tickets. "

After market surveys revealed that a connection to Florida's west coast is required, the city of Islip courted the airline, which considered demographic trends favorable and announced its intention on August 20, 2013. It would be the 99th US city to be one of 14 serviced tourist destinations.

"We are pleased to add beaches in southwest Florida as an affordable and convenient destination option for Long Island residents," the press release said. "We are confident that the community will appreciate the convenience of a non-stop flight to Punta Gorda."

Allegiant opened Punta Gorda / Ft. Myers flies four months later, on December 20, with a 166-passenger MD-80 that operates as Flight 999 and departs at 19:20, a date that serves as the threshold for the traditional Christmas and winter season in Florida.

After consulting additional seasonal and year-round service to Myrtle Beach, St. Petersburg, Orlando, Ft. Lauderdale and Las Vegas would be considered.

4. Current service:

Before Long Island MacArthur Airport can have an economic impact on the region, a sufficient flight service is required. With 23 departures until January 2014, two of which were not even performed daily, this goal was hardly achieved.

Southwest, still the dominant airline, offered five flights to Baltimore, three to Orlando, two to Ft. Lauderdale, two to West Palm Beach and one to Tampa – or a total of 13 with 737-700 aircraft. This was just one more thing than it had offered in 1999, when it had triggered the airport's recent growth phase and returned it to its origins.

US Airways, a stronghold since the Allegheny service days, offered four daily DHC-8 turboprop flights from de Havilland via the regional airline Piedmont to Philadelphia and two with the regional jet Bombardier CRJ-200 from Air Wisconsin to Washington.

PenAir connected Boston to two Saab 340 departures and Allegiant Air connected the Long Island field to Ft two weekly MD-80 flights. Myers / Punta Gorda.

The re-establishment of important business connections to Boston and Washington, each with two flights of up to 50 passengers, allowed travelers to avoid the overload and commuting times associated with La Guardia, and meant a step in the right direction. But it was just a baby. If Long Island MacArthur is to grow back into a regional provider that reaps its own economic sustainability through landing, operating, office, concession and parking fees, air traffic needs to be much more promoted.

Create better foundations with Rub-R-Wall Water Proofing Solution

Sealing with membranes is time consuming. You have to think about the preparation time, the weather delays and how long the concrete hardens. All these aspects extend the duration of the completion of the construction plan. With the Rub-R-Wall sealing solution, delays can be significantly reduced and time saved. This also leads to an accelerated design, which reduces overhead costs. It is therefore an advantage for the owners, as they can move into the buildings immediately and thus increase the revenue. Rub-R-Wall impregnation refers to a liquid that is applied to the individual rubber component.

The temperatures for the implementation must be ideally adjusted. For this reason, it is ideal to hire a professional company. The membrane is designed to ensure exceptional adhesion. In addition, it has excellent inherent strength and is elastic, which facilitates expansion and contraction, thereby bridging gaps with a large margin. This sealing solution is used in industrial institutional and commercial applications. It also offers many benefits, some of which are listed below.

1. Unlike other waterproofing solutions, it can not break at a later date because it is 100% asphalt free.

2. It is not carcinogenic and non-toxic. For this reason, no chemicals are leached into groundwater or soil. It is this aspect that makes it an environmentally friendly choice.

3. The membrane is designed to attack algae, fungi and bacteria. This ensures that the superior performance of the property is maintained and the property is not exposed to any ground gases and chemicals.

4. The solution comes with a lifetime warranty and meets the building codes. It is the best waterproofing solution and prevents water from running under static pressure.

The use of this waterproof solution is manifold. It can be used, among other things, in foundations, ramps, tunnels, squares, pedestrian areas and bridge decks. To make sure you get the most out of the sealing solution, it's a good idea to weigh your options carefully. You can also use the services of a company that is able to repair existing foundations with water leak problems. This will ensure that the appropriate moisture barriers are installed and the damage caused by leaking water will be eliminated. The Rub-R-Wall impregnation solution should not be overlooked as it offers all these benefits and more.

When selecting the best waterproof material, the appropriate application method should also be considered. Some waterproof materials require special applications that you may not be familiar with. For the first applications, you may need to apply different layers of water-resistant materials. However, if you are doing an annual watertight application, you may need to perform a partial or comprehensive re-application. When using for the first time, you should use products that are suitable for various waterproof materials.

The waterproof treatment is ideal for brick, wood and concrete surfaces. You can save a lot of time and money by choosing waterproof material that can be used on different surfaces of your building. The length of surface you want to waterproof is crucial as it determines the amount of money you use to purchase your waterproof material. It is also important to consider the safety of your waterproof material. You should not buy materials that expose you and your pets to serious health risks. The bottom line is to choose a waterproof material that requires less coating.

Interesting facts about supermodels!

United States

Did you know already – The American Christie Brinkley, an admirer of the former French leader Charles de Gaulle, was one of the most famous supermodels of the 20th century. According to manager John Casablancas, "she was a kind of flower child, a cute doll of a girl, too fragile to be sexy." Born in Los Angeles, Brinkley worked with some of the best-known modeling agencies, including Eileen Ford and Elite Model Management. She appeared in 1983 in the video for Billy Joels hit single "Uptown Girl".

Bangladesh (Asia)

Did you know already – Bibi Russell put Bangladesh, an obscure English-speaking country in Asia, on the map as she became one of the world's elite supermodels in the 1970s. Like Irene Khan, Sheik Hassina Wajed and Muhammad Yunus, Russell is a national symbol of Bangladesh, one of the poorest nations in the world.

Mexico (Latin America)

Did you know already- The 26-year-old Elsa Benitez from Mexico, the most beautiful girl in the country since Maria "La Doña" Felix, together with the Olympic champion Jefferson Perez, was one of the twelve celebrities selected for the Miss Universe 2004 jury in Quito, Ecuador and the Cuban-American producer Emilio Estefan. Miss Benitez is 1,80 tall and comes from Hermosillo, Sonora.

United States

Did you know already – They asked people today to call a beautiful woman, most would mention someone like Tyra Banks. Banks is enormously popular in America, Europe, Japan and China and is with 1.78 m as one of the best supermodels of all time. No doubt she is famous for her elegance and unique personality. Banks is a model for top fashion designers, including Donna Karan, Isaac Mizrahi, Rifat Ozbek, Oscar de la Renta and Tommy Hilfiger. She has also starred in major films such as "Higher Learning" (1995), "Coyote Ugly" (2000), "Halloween Resurrection" (2003) and "Hannah Montana: The Movie" (2009) Tyra Banks, one of the world's top volleyball players of the 20th century, was born in Inglewood, CA.

Argentina (South America)

Did you know already- Valeria Mazza, a tall blonde and blue-eyed model, was born in Argentina, a nation of beauty-obsessed America. Since then she is next to Eva Duarte de Perón (former First Lady), Paloma Herrera (dancer), Norma Leandro (actress) and Jeanette Campbell (silver winner at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin) one of the most famous women in Argentina. Since 2000, Mazza has occasionally appeared in commercials in her home country and other Latin American countries.

Denmark (Europe)

Did you know already- In July 1986, Helena Christensen, then Miss Denmark, wore a traditional peasant dress at the opening ceremony of the Miss Universe Pageant in 1986 in the Central American nation of Panama. However, she from Copenhagen did not impress the distinguished jury, which included Don Correia (Broadway actor) and Jose Quintero (Panamanian theater director), as well as Paloma San Basilio (Spain's singer) and Shawn Weatherly (Miss South Carolina). Miss USA and Miss Universe 1980). Unlike Monica Urbina (Colombia's delegate), Christy Fichtner (America's candidate), Susanna Huckstep (Miss Italy & Miss Photogenic Universe) and Barbara Palacios (Miss South America and Miss Venezuela), Christensen was not a favorite in the Miss Universe contest. In the swimsuit competition she had 7,420 points behind Zaire / DR Congo (8,210), Reunion (8,110), Paraguay (7,780) and Miss Guatemala (7,560).

Germany (Europe)

Did you know already – At the beginning of the nineties the German Claudia Schiffer from Rheinbach came to Lima, Peru for an official visit. It was one of the most famous European models of the 20th century.

Sudan (Africa)

Did you know already- In the late 1990s, the Sudanese refugee Alek Wek, a statuesque black woman, shocked the world as she became a professional model in Britain and the US. She was one of the 420,000 refugees who fled Sudan in the last century. Like many Sudanese, including Lopez Lamong (now US athlete) and Macharia Yuot (sportswoman), Ms. Wek escaped from her country, a sub-Saharan African country ravaged by civil wars, AIDS, poverty, genocide, famine and terrorism (in fact, no other African state has seen so many tragedies). Undoubtedly, it is currently an inspiration to women / refugees in the Third World, including their homeland, where any number of women / children live under slave conditions. In addition, this girl is not only one of Africa's most successful models, but also an African symbol. In recent years, the spectacular Sudanese Model Wek has supported a number of not-for-profit organizations, including Amnesty International and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). On the other hand, unfortunately, she is a persona non grata of the Sudanese rule, one of the most brutal regimes in the world, along with other tyrants such as Cuba, Burma and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

Great Britain

Did you know already- London is the birthplace of Naomi Campbell, Britain's top supermodel. Miss Campbell is also one of the most beautiful black people in the world. Apart from that, she has a career as a television presenter and actress.

India (Asia)

Did you know already- During her short but fast-paced career as a professional model, Indian actress Aishwarya Rai, now successful in Bollywood, captured the hearts of both critics and audiences. She was one of the world's best supermodels in the late 1990s.

Brazil (South America)

Did you know already- It's virtually impossible to talk about supermodels without mentioning Gisele Bundchen. The Brazilian Bundchen, a blue-eyed blonde, is one of the highest paid supermodels in the world. Since then she is the new idol of the Brazilian people.

Somalia (Africa)

Did you know already- Iman was one of the most successful black models in the world. She speaks fluent English and was chosen as a model in New York City from Africa in the late 1970s. The two-meter beauty from Somalia has been married since 1992 to David Bowie, the rock star and actor. This year, she returned to Somalia as a hero of the people, a land plagued by war on the African mainland. Iman once said of her nation: "My whole nation is graceful, no one has to tell us how to walk or how to stand, we have air, dignity: Whatever happens, you keep your head up, but it is It's like a duck that glides on the water – beneath the surface, where no one can see, his feet are twirling. "She has appeared in numerous films and music videos.

America

Did you know already – Few stars have had such diverse careers as Margaux Hemingway. Miss Hemingway was not only considered one of the highest paid supermodels in the world (she was known for her contract with Fabergé over one million US dollars from 1975), but was also an actress. In the 1970s she was a prominent jet set celebrity.

Venezuela (Latin America)

Did you know already – Venezuela has produced some beauties, from Albany Josefina Lozada and Martina Thorogood Heemsen to Maria Milagros Veliz, but Patricia Velasquez, who is half native, is a special case. Prior to being selected as a model, she participated in Miss Venezuela, where she was one of the runners-up, in 1989, with the help of fashion designer Mayela Camacho. In the early 1990s, she left Caracas to travel to Europe, where she impressed her managers with her indigenous beauty and soon became one of the most popular international models. Like Cathy Freeman, Evonne Goolagong, Jim Thorpe, and Rigoberta Menchu, she is a symbol of indigenous pride. In recent years, Velasquez has made efforts to save the indigenous people of Latin America. She comes from Maracaibo in the north of Venezuela.

Australia (Oceania)

Did you know already- Elle MacPherson was the best Australian model ever.