The story of the 50-seat regional jet produced by Canadair and Embraer – and to a lesser extent the history of the Fokker F.28 Fellowship and the British Aerospace BAe-146 – was in many ways the story of Long Island MacArthur Airport the guy ultimately facilitated the big carrier aligned hub feed service. It represented the larger range of airlines at smaller and secondary airfields and offered the same speed, deadlock and comfort as the traditionally larger mainline jets. This closed the gap between them and the small and too slow turboprop aircraft with 19 to 50 passengers for many of these industries.
The need was largely driven by deregulation of the airline, which resulted in the rise of the hub-and-spoke route system in the US. Tunneling and feeding passengers to the more powerful majors such as American, Continental, Delta and United from longer but slimmer segments operated by regional airlines that carried the majors' two-letter code and the original independent livery With this new type of aircraft, commuter companies expanded rapidly. It was the right plane at the right time and led to the so-called "regional jet revolution".
The regional jets were not only the most cost-effective way for airlines to connect hundreds, if not thousands, of communities with airport hubs and global airline networks, "said Bombardier Aerospace (who later acquired Canadair)" passenger travel experience, providing more traffic to regional carriers, Revenue and larger market shares. To further increase traffic growth, the idea was promoted to fly between "language cities" with the Canadair Regional Jet. Each new spoke city increased the number of connecting passengers that flew to the hub of a mainline partner of a regional airline. These extra routes offered passengers in small communities more flight options. "
This certainly happened at Long Island MacArthur Airport of Islip.
"There are literally hundreds of markets where regular jet service is not possible, but 30-, 50- and 70-seaters can now offer jet comfort and economic service," commented Doug Blissit, once vice president of Delta Air Lines network analysis. "The regional jets represent a phenomenal economic transformation in the industry. The vast majority of missions were to increase the range of the hubs with more economical aircraft."
In addition to the cooperative character of the type, he also had a competitive side. It could be seen as a tool that attacked the major airlines 'hub-and-spoke fortresses and allowed smaller airlines that began as traditional turboprop commuters to penetrate the cracks in the majors' armor and create new point-to-point Forge point routes that do not require a hub for sufficient load factors.
Early regional jet operations:
Perhaps the earliest regional jet in the Western world, banning the Russian three-engine Yakovlev Yak-40 with 27 passengers, was the Fokker F.28 Fellowship.
The popularity of the 40-passenger F.27 Friendship twin-engined aircraft, which looks like a compass needle in the direction of a pure jet complement and offers higher speeds and shorter block times, led to the development of the F.28 itself.
It was announced in April 1962 and was designed for short-range operations, but provides more seating for 65 people in a hull wide enough for five adjacent arrays. Similar to the main aircraft, such as the British Aircraft Corporation BAC-111 and the McDonnell-Douglas DC-9, it featured a low-mounted, composite wing at its front edge, two rear-mounted Rolls Royce RB.183 Spey Junior turbofans, a dorsal fin and a T-tail, which remain simple by eliminating top-of-the-line equipment. Unique to its design was a hydraulically operated air brake, which formed the rear end of the fuselage. Expandable to varying degrees, it enabled steep but slow and controlled descent profiles.
Apart from the financial support from the Dutch government, the risk sharing of the program came from Short Brothers of Belfast, Northern Ireland. HFB and VFW of Germany; and AiResearch, Dowty Rotol and Goodyear.
Three prototypes flew for the first time on May 9, August 3, and October 20, 1967, and the first production version, the F.28-1000, was delivered to customer LTU of Germany two years later on February 24. As with the F.27, sales could be counted in the single digits, as the F.28 was usually the largest type in the fleet of a small airline.
A stretched version, the F.28-4000, had a total length of 97.2 feet and an almost 12 foot greater wing span of 82.3 feet. Powered by two Rolls Royce Spey 555-15H turbofans with a 9,850 pound displacement, it had a maximum takeoff weight of 73,000 pounds, a cruising speed of 530 mph at 21,000 feet, and a maximum payload fuel ratio of between 1,162 and 2,560 miles. Although accommodating 79 passengers in five ranks in a classroom, six more passengers (85 in all) could be carried with a 29-inch seat pitch, with an additional overflow exit installed on each side.
The type considered in Piedmont's Islip operation.
Piedmont itself had already inaugurated its planned flight connection on February 20, 1948 with flight 41. At 7:00 am, the DC-3 of Wilmington, North Carolina, embarked on the multi-trip voyage to Pinehurst, Charlotte, Ashville, the Tri-Cities. Lexington and Cincinnati. Two other aircraft of the type and 250 employees formed the backbone of metal and human.
With continued expansions, particularly with Atlanta line extensions, Delta and Eastern flights were initially serviced and growth increased significantly until it became a standalone US major. Perhaps symbolic of his prestige was his arrival in New York in 1966, both in the truest sense of the word and among major airlines.
The profit rose: in 1965 it was $ 1 million, two years later almost double. Established its first hub in Charlotte, North Carolina, and shone its reach to major cities such as Boston, Pittsburgh, Tampa, Miami, Dallas / Ft. Worth and Denver carrying more passengers than the traditional Charlotte fortress of Eastern Airlines.
With 727 to 100, 727 to 200 and 737 to 200 – the latter as a short to medium-term workhorse – it announced in the system timetable of October 31, 1982: "We make it easy to gain a foothold in over 80 cities."
Afterwards, hubs were set up in Baltimore and Dayton, and the 767-200ER's wide body finally reached the West Coast and Europe.
By 1987, Piedmont operated a fleet of 177 men to 235 targets with 23 million passengers and was thus ready for the acquisition of US $ 1.6 billion by USAir.
The capacity, especially the F.28-1000 with 65 passengers, secured the frequency at Long Island MacArthur Airport.
Of the five daily departures to Baltimore hub, morning and evening departures were made from 737 to 300 passengers. The flights in the morning and afternoon were flown with Henson, the 37 passengers comprehensive DHC-8-100 of the Piedmont regional airline. and the midday sector was operated on the F.28-1000, allowing it to "size out" its equipment according to time of day, capacity and demand.
When Piedmont took over New York-based Empire Airlines in 1986 along with its hub in Syracuse and an F.28-4000 with 85 passengers, it used the type of Islip to supply its much-developed hub in Charlotte.
Another early regional jet was the British Aerospace BAe-146.
As the ultimate design response to the need for feeder or regional aircraft, it has undergone numerous iterations, including the DH.123 high-wing dual-turboprop models proposed by de Havilland and a rear-engined low-wing model until it reached the HS.146 of Hawker Siddeley with Avco Lycoming ALF-502 turbofans with high bypass ratio. Since they did not produce the required thrust for the intended aircraft, only the use of four pylons mounted on the underside of the high wing could provide the required power and range.
Although the official launch of the type appeared promising in 1973, it did not come at the right time due to the subsequent global economic crisis, rising oil prices and escalating development costs and was discontinued in October 1974. The restrained development was nevertheless continued.
After the merger of de Havilland and Hawker Siddeley to the nationalized British Aerospace Authority (British Aerospace) and the execution of its own design and market test, it was granted on July 10, 1978, the full program development by the government.
The final assembly took place in Hatfield.
Like the F.28 Fellowship, a stern and a rear wing brake for steep approaches that form a hull, she distinguished herself by a high wing, even without front edge, and the four turbofans. While the cabin was wide enough for six seats, most airlines opted for five.
The first BAe-146-100 flight from Hatfield took place on 3 September 1981. This was followed by two successively more powerful, stretched versions, the BAe-146-200 and the BAe-300.
The first to be launched for the first time on August 1, 1982, was 93.10 feet long and 86 feet apart with a 15 degree sweepback and tabbed Fowler flaps at the trailing edge. Up to 112 passengers of the single class could be accommodated at a 29-inch distance of six next to each other. Its maximum gross weight was 93,000 pounds and the range was 1,130 nautical miles at full payload.
The BAe-146 was put into service on 27 June 1983 at Air Wisconsin.
Presidential Airways, founded in 1985 by Harold J. Pareti and headquartered in Washington, was the only operator of the type in Islip to operate a fleet of eight BAe-146-200s in addition to its 737-200s. The airline, which links Long Island with its Dulles International hub, later served as the Continental Express and United Express code share airline and served the main flights in Washington.
Later Regional Jet Operations:
The first regional jet of the next generation emerged as Canadair (later Bombardier) CRJ.
Aside from developing completely new designs, aircraft manufacturers of low-capacity, pure jets have two options: downsizing an existing airliner such as the DC-9-10 would have added too much structural weight to the market or increased aircraft. Those who fell into the latter category were business jets, though their tight hulls made them less than ideal for such commercial use. Because of the wide cabin of its own CL-600 Challenger, which was first flown in 1978, Canadair was able to choose the latter option.
Originally planned to accommodate a one-way, 24-passenger, four-distance haul, and designated as a CL-600E, it was first released in 1980, but its plans to proceed with the year-after-year version were canceled. In 1987, or a year after the takeover of Canadair by Bombardier, the concept of the small regional jet was reconsidered and launched in 1989.
A more ambitious version than originally envisioned, it introduced a 19.5-foot track that features front and rear fuselage stoppers, additional overhead overflow exits, a reinforced higher-capacity wing, and two rear-mounted General Electric CF34 turbofans After a test flight with three aircraft, the company received the FAA certification on October 29 of the following year and began service to the first customer Lufthansa CityLine, which deployed it from Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg and Munich are both point-to-point – as well as hub feed services for Western European destinations offered.
Apart from what a pilot called a "sexy look," the original CRJ-100 version had a pointed nose, a length of 87.10 feet, a winglet span of 69.7 feet and an area of 520, 4 square feet and an exclusive trailing flaps, two CF34-3A1 thrust reversers with 9,220 pounds and a T-tail. Fifty-four passengers side by side could be accommodated in narrow seats in a cabin with closed storage compartments, a galley and a toilet.
The payload was 13,500 pounds, the gross weight 53,000 pounds and the range 1,650 nautical miles.
The subsequent CRJ-200 with CF34-3B1 offered greater range, lower fuel consumption and higher cruising speeds and altitudes.
The sales of both types was 1,054.
Headquartered at Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport, Comair was the first modern regional jet operator of Long Island MacArthur.
The aircraft, which was put into service as an airline in 1977, first landed in Akron / Canton, Cleveland and Evansville with eight-passenger Piper Navajos and piston engine, followed by Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirantes with 18 passengers.
After founding a Cincinnati hub in 1984, the company was accepted as a Delta Connection carrier and used in painting. It expanded significantly and soon acquired the equipment of Fairchild Swearingen Metro, Shorts 330, Embraer, EMB-120 Brasilia and Saab 340. Orlando became its second hub.
As a US customer for the Canadair Regional Jet he operated until 2005, 163 of these types, including 63 CRJ-100ER, 37 CRJ-100LR, 37 CRJ-200ER and 27 CRJ-700LR.
Delta acquired 20 percent of Comair's shares in 1996, the remainder three years later.
The guy was instrumental in the service launch of Islip and offered three daily morning, afternoon and evening flights to Cincinnati to allow passengers to access their own flights and flights from Partner Delta. This connection opened the rest of the country and parts of Canada to Long Island.
Another Canadair regional jet operator of MacArthur, which was also a Delta Connection carrier, was ASA Atlantic Southeast Airlines.
On June 27, 1979, the DHC-6 Twin Other by de Havilland of Canada opened an independent scheduled service from Atlanta to Columbus, Georgia. The machine went through another turboprop aircraft, the EMB-110, and subsequently acquired the Reinjet BAe-146-200 and CRJ-200 types, which powered the Delta hub in Atlanta after having its own two-letter engine. Had signed a marketing agreement with him. As with Comair, ASA was supplemented by increasing share purchases until the full participation of Delta.
Cincinnati, which was reached in 2002, was the 100th target and in 2003 the 100th regional jet was delivered. By 2011, 112 CRJ-200ERs, 46 CRJ-700ERs and 10 CRJ-900ERs were in operation.
Islip was connected to its own and Delta-spanned Atlanta hub with three daily CRJ-200 return flights operated by ASA. Comair later served the route.
Another regional Canadair-Jet operator of Islip was Air Wisconsin, which was called the US Airways Express and restored the connection that was lost due to the slot restrictions of Washington Reagan National, as the incoming aircraft, on 25 March Arrived at 1250 in 2012, a water curtain was granted on MacArthur's ramp.
It left again around 1328 and was the first of two daily CRJ-200 tours. Although it was highly endorsed by lawmakers, it was short-lived.
The counterpart of the Canadair Regional Jet – if not a competitor – was the Embraer ERJ-145.
He used his power from never before available engines, which enabled him to operate in predominantly untapped markets, and tried to outweigh the higher fuel consumption of these engines compared to the conventional turboprop engines, by increasing the daily utilization of his shorter stall times as well the associated benefits increased with their greater passenger acceptance.
In contrast to Canadair's business jet CL-600 Challenger, the EMB-120 Brasilia served as a basis of inspiration. It introduced two hull plugs and a revised wing with extended leading edge, light sweepback and winglets, but replaced the turboprop engines with pure jets in pods. The tail was preserved. It was originally called the EMB-145 Amazon.
The Allison GMA-3007 turbofan with a thrust of 7,100 pounds and a potential of up to 10,000 pounds was selected in early 1990.
Iterations, involving shorter distances, larger spans, greater fuel capacity, higher weights, and improved performance, resulted in the final ERJ-145, which first flew on August 1, 1995. At the very front of the cabin was a gangway with a payload of 12,755 pounds and a gross weight of 48,501 pounds. It was first delivered to launch ExpressJet Airlines, which operated as Continental Express the following year. It offered the capacity, speed and range to meet demand on longer, narrower routes and to serve both its own and Continental's flights.
"With its hub at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, Continental Airlines is the largest airline in northeastern Ohio, offering more than 250 daily departures to nearly 80 cities," said United Airlines Corporate News, March 29, 2004. "With one of the youngest Aircraft fleets in the US offer Continental and Continental Express convenient high-frequency links from Cleveland Hopkins to major business centers such as Boston, New York (Newark Liberty, LaGuardia, Kennedy, White Plains, and Islip), Washington (Reagan National, Baltimore-Washington and Dulles), Chicago (O & Hare and Midway), Houston and Atlanta.
Like other regional airlines, ExpressJet itself was the result of several turboprop commuters, including Bar Harbor Airlines of Bangor, Maine; PBA Provincetown-Boston Airlines of Hyannis, Massachusetts; Rocky Mountain Airways of Denver, Colorado; and Brit Airways from Terre Haute, Indiana, all of which flew with their operating permit.
On September 4, 1998, the regional jet ERJ -145 was inaugurated and eventually the largest operator of all three versions of the type, including the smaller ERJ-135 with 37 passengers and the ERJ-140 with 44 passengers.
Its three daily frequencies in the morning, afternoon and evening from Islip to Cleveland, on which the flight numbers "CO" are indicated, connected Long Island with the rest of the country.
Another regional jet carrier of MacArthur Embraer was American Eagle.
As with Continental Express, the American Eagle concept introduced in late 1984 resulted from American Airlines' inability to economically serve the secondary and tertiary markets with its mainline jets. It grew fast, fed its hubs, and rose from turboprop to pure-jet. The first officially named American Eagle flight from Fayetteville, Arkansas, to Dallas took place on November 1, when one of the 14 Metroflight's Convair 580, powered by two 3,750-hp Allison 501-D13H turboprops, landed at the southwestern American hub. The aircraft, which was rebuilt by CV-240, -340 and -440 piston engines, was eventually replaced by Saab 340.
Also this year, Poughkeepsie, New York, joined Command Airways, which ran the Beech 99s, DHC-6 Twin Otters, Shorts 330s, Shorts 360s and ATR-42s.
Simmons, the third, seeded Japanese NAMC YS-11, Shorts 360, ATR-42 and ATR-72 from Chicago-O & Hare, and Wings West, the fourth, C99, Fairchild Swearingen Metros, Jetstream 31 and Saab 340 to destinations on the west coast.
Finally, the Puerto Rican-based Executive Airlines jumped into the pool on September 15, 1986, running CASA C-212-200 Aviocars, Shorts 360s, and ATR-72s.
From Islip, a noon ERJ-145 to Chicago-O'Hare, which supplemented the American MD-80 in the morning and in the evening, replaced the four daily 34-passenger Saab 340 (which was in front of AMR, Inc.) flew the colors of Business Express), acquired it and folded it into the American Eagle brand) with an equal number of 37 passenger ERJ-135 frequencies.
Another Long Island MacArthur American Eagle ERJ-145 operator was Piedmont, which traces its origins back to Henson Airlines.
The company was founded in 1961 by Richard A. Henson, an aerospace pioneer and Fairchild Aircraft test pilot, and has been named "Henson Aviation" in 1962 under the name "Hagerstown Commuter" as a stationary base operator in Hagerstown, Maryland.
Five years later, the company signed a codeshare agreement with Allegheny Airlines and replaced its own carrier in Salisbury, Maryland. In 1977, it entered Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington and acquired its first four-engined 54-passenger de Havilland from Canada DHC-7 two years later.
The company, acquired by Piedmont Airlines in 1983, has been renamed "Henson, The Piedmont Regional Airline".
The following year, the first DHC-8-100 with 37 passengers was delivered, and the end of 1987, 38 destinations were served in ten states and in the Bahamas.
After merging with USAir in 1989, Henson served as USAir Express and later as US Airways Express carrier, but was renamed Piedmont Airlines four years later to maintain its original identity. American Airlines, which bought US Airways in 2013 and renamed it American Eagle, has maintained this philosophy.
Today, Piedmont / American Eagle operates three daily ERJ-145 frequencies that leave Islip at 0710, 1035 and 1858 for Philadelphia, one of the former hubs of USAir / US Airways. Return flights land on Long Island at 1007, 1833 and 2221.
Both ASA Atlantic Southeast Airlines and Comair flew with the larger CRJ-700 to Islip.
The result of Bombardier's first attempt to offer a higher-capacity version to more effectively compete with the Fokker F.70 and the Avro International RJ70, both 70-seater, was the official launch of the program in January 1997. Based on the original CRJ -200 introduced a slightly wider hull with a total length of 106.8 feet; a larger wing with a span of 76.3 feet and an area of 760 square feet; Leading edge batten for increasing lift at low speed and for reducing take-offs; 13,790 thrust-pound CF34-8C5B1 turbo fans; a lower floor for more headroom in the cabin; raised passenger windows; a one-class capacity of 78; and 18,055 and 75,000 pounds of maximum payloads and gross weights.
The first flight took place on 27 May 1999 and was put into service two years later by Brit Air. The pattern privilege of the lower capacity predecessors has been retained.
The extended-range CRJ-700ER had a capacity of 1,504 nautical miles and a cruising speed of 0.78 km / h (448 knots).
Regional Jet Snapshots in Time:
Due to demand, the need to adjust capacity and timing, and in some cases to substitute one type of aircraft for another, any attempt to discuss Long Island MacArthur's regional jet operations can only be performed as a snapshot.
For example, in the latter part of 1988, which may be considered its early regional jet period, Presidential Airways operated its BAe-146-200 to Washington-Dulles, while Piedmont operated its "in-size" aircraft to the frequency Henson DHC-8-100s, and the 65-passenger Passenger's lunch at F.28-1000 between 737-300s morning and evening and Henson DHC-8-100s in the morning and afternoon.
In 1998, the beginning of the era of next-generation regional jets, Long Island was connected to Delta's Atlanta and Cincinnati hubs and Continental's Cleveland, each operating a 50-seater CRJ-100, a CRJ-200 and an ERJ-145 from Comair, ASA and ExpressJet.
Daily departures included three Comair / Delta Connection CRJ-100s to Cincinnati, two American Eagle ERJ-145s to Chicago, two and later three ExpressJet / Continental Express ERJ-145s to Cleveland and three ASA / Delta Connection CRJ-200s to Atlanta ,
During the first month of regional service, the latter airline carried 6,980 passengers, making it the airport's third largest tenant in terms of boarding.
By December 1999, eight of the 37 daily pure jet flights or 19 percent had been carried out with the new generation of Canadair and Embraer regional jets. In March 2000, the monthly number of passengers in the regional aircraft was 16,210, ie 6,107 carried by ASA, 6,831 by Comair and 3,212 by ExpressJet.
In August 2002, American Eagle replaced its four Saab 340 flights to Boston with ERJ-135 flights delivering American Airlines hub feeds, and in the fall, ASA and Comair equipped two or three of their frequencies in Atlanta and Cincinnati on CRJ-700 with larger capacity around.
Last inauguration of the Regional Jet Service:
The last airline to hit Long Island with the regional jet was Elite Airways.
As the name suggests, the company was founded in 2016 to provide a high quality travel experience. It entered the arena as a US airline, Part 121, and promoted sports teams and executives both on scheduled and charter services on routes from northeast to Florida with a CRJ -100, five CRJ-200s and five CRJ-700s.
Twice-weekly limited CRJ-700 compounds from Islip to Portland, Maine; Myrtle Beach, South Carolina; and Melbourne, Florida, were inaugurated on June 17, 2016. However, lower utilization factors led the company to pause twice between January 15 and February 16, 2017, and April and July of this year to review its strategy.
As the second barrier turned into an unexpected 16-month barrier, it finally reappeared on September 6, 2018, this time with a CRJ-200 from Thursday and Sunday to Melbourne. It was called Flight 7Q 21 and started at 08:00 clock and arrived at 10:45 clock in the sunshine. After a 45-minute turn, it started again at 11:30 clock towards Bimini in the Bahamas and was Islips first direct connection.
"The route is designed so that passengers from Islip can only book a flight to Melbourne or stay aboard the Bimini transfer service," said Rebecca Emery, PR Manager at Elite Airways. "It's the Bahamian island closest to the US, with miles of secluded beaches, four-star hotels and Resorts World Bimini Casino and Marina."
The return flight, 7Q 23, left Bimini at 13:30, but required the prior clearance of US Customs and Border Guard. An hour later she landed in Melbourne, started in 1600 as 7Q 24 and landed in MacArthur around 2045.
Low load factors reiterated its stance, leaving Piedmont / American Eagle's ERJ-145 at the beginning of 2020 as Islip's only regional aircraft in Philadelphia.