The thin band of interlinked barrier islands stretching over 130 miles along the North Carolina coast and forming the Outer Banks seems to be more of a part of the Atlantic than the continent to which they are connected by causeways, bridges and ferries. Islands in and out of sand, their dunes with the sometimes evil winds like flowing boats and flow away, depending on the direction of travel, the threshold to North America – or to its end.
Defined by land or the absence of it, a trip here can bring sailing, fishing, kayaking, water skiing, parasailing, hang gliding, kitesurfing, dune climbing, dolphin watching and sand surfing. But above all, it is about the first – the first English colonists who left their mark on the sand, the first airmen who left their mark on the sand when they conquered the flight – and the sea, the dunes and the wind, that made both possible.
2. From mountains to shores
Although these shallow, swampy islands and patches of the outer shores could no longer oppose the high Appalachian Mountains rising in the west, they emanated from these peaks and became the third reproduction of them.
Rivers, which are rainwater collections, flowed to the east and sharply crashed off the edge of the second or lower topographic feature of the Piedmont. Offshore currents that then act as clay on their sediments and form it, which originated 25,000 years ago from this mountainous source, after creating the Barrier Islands and their waterslide beaches.
Because currents are anything but static, their restless powers continually shape and reposition these island masterpieces as they are exposed to the ever-changing hands of wind and water. This dynamic phenomenon is the key to their protective effect, as they shield the more permanent land and often cause the first major load of hurricanes and other storm systems like shock absorbers.
These sounds, created and defined by the forces of nature, are the second largest dining system in the US after Chesapeake Bay. They cover an area of almost 3,000 square miles and drain 30,000 square miles of water.
"A thin, broken strand of islands," said the National Park Service, "bends into the Atlantic Ocean and back in a protective embrace of the mainland coast and offshore islands of North Carolina."
3. Access and orientation
The outer shores are made up of northern beaches with cities such as Kitty Hawk, Kill Devil Hills and Nags Head; Roanoke Island; and Cape Hatteras National Seashore, which is made up of the islands of Bodie, Hatteras and Ocracoke.
Scheduled flights are offered to Norfolk and Raleigh-Durham International Airports in Virginia and North Carolina, while charter flights are offered to Dare County Regional Airport on Roanoke Island. Private aircraft serve First Flight Airstrip at Kill Devil Hills and Billy Mitchell Airport on Hatteras Island.
On the road, the Outer Banks from the US 158 and the Wright Memorial Bridge from the north and the US 64 over the 8.5-kilometer Virginia Dare Memorial Bridge, Roanoke Iceland, the Nags Head Manteo Causeway and the Washington Tree Bridge the West is serving. From the north, the route leads to the four lane US 158 artery and crosses the 26 km island with access to shops, outlets, restaurants and attractions. The narrower, two-lane NC 12, also known as the Beach Road, serves residential areas, hotels and restaurants, often overlooking the Atlantic Ocean. The same road leads down Hatteras Island and, after an additional ferry ride, Ocracoke Island.
4. Kitty Hawk
Kitty Hawk was not the site of the world's first successful flight, though the Wright brothers stayed in the village. Instead, this historic event occurred about four miles south of Kill Devil Hills. However, in addition to the Aycock Brown Welcome Center, which offers brochures and travel planning information on area attractions, restaurants, entertainment, shopping and nearby hotels, there is still an aviation attraction.
It was declared Icarus International's Monument to a Century of Flying and dedicated on November 8, 2003, to the centenary of powered flight to celebrate the history, beauty and secrets of flying and the rise of the human spirit. The monument itself is aimed against the open sky of Kitty Hawk to create a contemplative environment. It consists of 14 wing-shaped stainless steel pylons rising from ten to twenty feet in a 120-foot orbit to reflect the distance of the Wright Brothers' first flight on December 17, 1903, and depict man's ascent to heaven and space.
"Humanity is a continuum of pioneers," says the memorial, "sharing the timeless dreams and limitless possibilities of vast unexplored worlds."
The black granite tablets engrave 100 of the most significant aviation achievements of the past century. In the center of the two-meter-diameter dome are the continents of the earth and the words: "When Orville Wright rose from the sands of Kitty Hawk at ten o'clock, we set off on the morning of December 17, 1903, at five o'clock the way to the moon and beyond. "
5. Kill Devil Hills
Kill Devil Hills is, of course, home to the world's first powered, controlled and sustained flight, and the Wright Brothers National Memorial seen from US 158 pays homage to the place.
Although the Wrights grew up in Dayton, Ohio, they did all of their early engine-glider (unpowered) and engine (airplane) trials in North Carolina, as they offered high dunes for foot-starts and strong winds for buoyancy with minimal ground speed and soft To produce sand for wheelless, low-damage landings and the isolation of press and spectators.
According to the Visitors Center Museum, which includes sports exhibits, 1902 Glider replicas and Wright Flyer 1903, National Park Service conversations and programs, and a book / gift shop, the brothers were inspired by the aerodynamic principles and founded them on four principles laid down earlier authors pioneers: Sir George Cayley (1773-1857), who laid the foundation of aerodynamics; Alphonse Penaud (1850-1880), who built a rubber-band-driven Planophon model and flew it 131 feet in length; Otto Lilienthal (1848-1896), who carried out extensive gliding tests; and Octave Chanute (1832-1910), who became a virtual clearinghouse for all aviation related developments and published them in a book titled "Advancement in Airplanes". In fact, the Wright Brothers' biplane was a virtual copy of him.
According to the museum, the monument is the birthplace of aviation. "Here, Wilbur and Orville Wright made the first successful powered flight in world history on December 17, 1903," it says. "The Wrights believed that man's escape was possible and possible through systematic study."
This systematic approach, coupled with its intuitive mechanical ability and analytical intelligence, allowed them to understand the lift counterweight and drag resistance. More importantly, the flight could only be conquered by controlling its three lateral, longitudinal and vertical axes. This lack of understanding had led to the failure of all previous experimenters.
They developed control surfaces to tame them to maintain the stability of an aircraft, and turned their non-propelled gliders, hundreds of footsteps from nearby Kill Devil Hill, into the successful Wright Flyer.
Two reconstructed buildings represent the Wright Brothers' Warehouse of 1903, with a hangar on the left and a workshop and living area on the right with a stove, a coarse kitchen, a pantry, a table and a ladder to access the hanging burlap Chevron that served as bunks.
The granite memorial stone marks the starting point of the four successful flights on December 17, 1903, and the markers on the field indicate the distance and the required time of flight.
Orville took control of the Wright Flyer, while Wilbur served as his "ground crew" and stabilized his wings, and left the runway at 10:35 on that historic day. The next attempt put 175 feet in the same time. The penultimate fight flew 200 feet in 15 seconds and the last and longest skimmed 852 feet in 59 seconds. Thereafter, damage to the aircraft along with the weather conditions at the end of the season prevented further testing and the brothers returned to Ohio.
On December 17, 1903, Orville Wright made the first successful flight of an aircraft designed and built by Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright, according to December 17, 1928, on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the National Aeronautics Association of the United States built machine. "
The former sand and dune sea, which extended from the first rocky outcrop and was still influenced by the wind, was now replaced by a sloping green field, but the aerodynamic forces invisibly touched the delicate field. Tips of the grass still left them in memory to weigh this event more than a century later.
The distance from the starting point, marked by the runway, to the fourth and farthest mark requires a swift walk with the feet with which man is equipped, but in 1903 it was equipped with the wings with which the birds had been equipped. The Wrights thus successfully cross the manifested as a machine human and animal species.
The 60-foot memorial, located on the 90-foot sand dune of Kill Devil Hill, opposite First Flight Airport with a 3,000-foot runway, marks the starting point for the hundreds of Wright's flights without an engine.
"… the sand makes us pretty blind", they wrote back then. "It's blowing over the ground in clouds, we certainly can not complain about the place, we came here for wind and sand and got them."
A large stainless steel sculpture by the Wright Flyer located at its base on the other side of the hill, weighing more than 10,000 pounds and weighing far more than the original plane, shows the historic first flight with photographer John Daniels from the local rescue station, shortly before, the only one ever taken picture.
The Centennial Pavilion, located opposite the Visitor Center, Museum and Airspace, features films and aviation and Outer Banks exhibits.
6. Nags Head
Just a few miles south of Kill Devil Hills at Nags Head is another flight-related attraction, the Jockey's Ridge State Park.
The 425-acre site is one of North Carolina's 35 state parks and four recreational areas stretching from Mount Mitchell – the highest peak in the west – to Jockey's Ridge to the east, and over the years the highest sand dune on the coast , has varied in height from 90 to 110 feet.
The visitor center houses a museum with photos of the dunes and their development, as well as exhibits on the flora and fauna of the region. Two trails offer direct views of the park: the 45-minute Soundside Nature Trail and the 1.5-mile tracks in the sand. But its jewel is unmistakably the dune itself and it's synonymous with hang gliding. The way Kill Devil Hills was the birthplace of powered flight was also Nags Head for the powerless, personal flight as sport has its roots here in many ways.
Francis Rogallo, like the Wright Brothers, who preceded him by almost five decades, laid the foundation for the sport and is therefore considered the "father of modern kite flying". To make flying affordable and accessible to everyone, he flew into the sky in 1948 with a makeshift glider whose wings had been assembled from his wife's kitchen curtains, declaring, "I wanted to give everyone the opportunity to fly first-hand experience."
Following in the footsteps of Wright in the sand until they disappeared into the sky, he used the same foot-start techniques that were less than eight kilometers away from those at Kill Devil Hills.
Kitty Hawk Kites, who works for Jockey's Ridge and was founded in 1974, teaches both this launch and tow-hang gliding and is today the world's largest flying school with more than 300,000 students.
Initial lessons taught by certified instructors include instruction on the ground, starting at the base of the dunes, and gliding at a height of 5 to 15 feet.
The Hang Gliding Spectacular, the longest-running hang gliding competition, takes place every year in May at Jockey's Ridge.
7. Roanoke Island
Roanoke Island lies between the northern beaches of the Outer Banks and the Dare mainland. It is 13 km long and 3.2 km wide and is home to the first English settlement in the New World.
Manteo, its commercial and government center, is a picturesque waterfront town with artists, fishermen, inns, bed and breakfast accommodation, cafes, souvenir shops, galleries, restaurants, boardwalks, and a marina with 53 moorings in Shallowbag Bay. History is reflected reflected in street names like Queen Elizabeth Avenue and Sir Walter Raleigh Street.
Named after the Croatian chief who returned at the end of the 16th century with the first English explorers and was incorporated as a town in 1899, it offers a variety of attractions. For example, the Magnolia Marketplace is an open-air pavilion used for city-sponsored events. The Tranquil House Inn on Queen Elizabeth Avenue resembles a stately hotel on the 19th-century Outer Banks coastline with Cyprus woodwork, beveled glass windows, back porches overlooking the bay, four-poster beds, continental breakfast, afternoon wine and cheese own 1587 restaurant.
Another attraction is the North Carolina Maritime Museum, an outpost of Beaufort's main post office, located in the George Washington Creef boathouse, overlooking the Croatan Sound. Before the 1939 fire, the Manteo boat building was located in the area, and the current structure was built by Creef's son the following year to repair his shadow-crafted shadow boats, which later became the state's official ship.
It is more like a workshop than a museum, and offers the visitor the opportunity to observe how the mostly volunteer staff restore and rebuild wooden hulls, although a shadow boat is on display, along with other memorabilia.
A boardwalk leads to another landmark of the city, Roanoke Marshes Lighthouse. In an exterior reconstruction of the square cottage-style lighthouse that led ships from 1877 to 1955 through the narrow channel between Pamlico and Croatan Sound on the south side of the island in an area called "Roanoke Marshes", the original was decommissioned year but swallowed during an attempted move of water.
The current replica with a fourth-order fixed Fresnel lens with white light was dedicated in 2004. Mayor John Wilson said, "In the years to come, we should remember the islanders mingling with the visitors along the Manteo waterfront, where dreams are still shining and where so many ships have been built and fired. A lighthouse now throws its reassuring beam into the night sky … "
Lighthouse and nautical photographs and exhibits can be visited inside.
A short drive down Queen Elizabeth Avenue and across the Cora Mae Bas Bridge will take you to Roanoke Island Festival Park, a 25-hectare complex with a living history that celebrates the first English settlement in America with several recreations.
The Indian city, for example, shows the Algonquian coastal culture that flourished on Roanoke Island and in the surrounding areas for thousands of years until the 1500s. At that time, nomadic hunters' lifestyles transformed into a more sedentary, agrarian lifestyle.
There was no written language. As a result, reports of the English explorers were published first-hand, archaeological finds in the region were uncovered and the oral tradition of storytelling and crafting formed the basis for the park's exhibits.
Under the rule of Queen Elizabeth I, the first expedition, organized by Sir Walter Raleigh but undertaken by Captain Arthur Barlowe and scientist Thomas Harriot, arrived on the shores of the New World in 1584 and both recorded their impressions of the country, that they had hoped to colonize. The reproduction of the small Indian city is representative of the type they met.
The main structure in each Algonquian settlement was the "weroance" or "leader's" house, and it was divided into an indoor area intended for public use, which served as a welcome and entertainment area for guests, as well as in the interiors in which private events took place, such as high-level meetings and family activities, occurred.
Several English explorers were greeted by the wife of Granganimeo, the local guide, and then escorted to the outside of the house, where they were warmed by a fire while their feet were washed and their clothes washed before being led into an interior a firm.
Another typical settlement structure was the nave. Supported by tree trunks whose bark was striped by young trees, she adopted a curved roof to reduce her susceptibility to winds. Their trunks were tied together with ropes. Its frame was then covered with reeds or bark mats.
Mats or animal skins covered equally the small doors to reduce heat loss.
Other houses, outdoor cooking and dining areas, and work stalls surrounded the longhouse, and corn and other staples were usually grown on the grounds.
Settlements typically supported 100 to 200 villagers and were evicted when the land they were on could no longer be managed, even though a decade between abandonment and re-occupation usually restored economic viability.
The indigenous life is further illustrated by exhibits for cooking and preparing food, canoes and weirs for fishing.
The highlight of Roanoke Island Festival Park may be the bayed and visitable ship Elizabeth II, which, like the other locations, is staffed by costume interpreters.
Built in 1983 in the North Carolina Maritime Museum on the other side of the bay, this replica, with a total length of 23 meters and a width of 16 meters, is a mixture of the then prevailing three-masted merchant ships. The ship, which is the type originally built for transporting the second Expeditionary Colonists (1585) after Thomas Cavendish pledged his estate for financing, commemorates the 400th anniversary of the event, using hand-cut juniper wood and robinia pegs in the keel, frame and planking. Although the relatively small ship with a displacement of 50 tons and a 65 foot main mast was intended primarily for European trading trips, it crossed equally the open sea.
Between 1584 and 1590, eight English expeditions with 22 ships and 1,200 soldiers, sailors and colonists (including 28 women and children) were undertaken.
The complex's settlement site, which is the first English military site on American soil, includes a sergeant tent, a blacksmith and blacksmith's workshop, a foot and rope lathe and a stockade.
In addition to these exhibits, the Roanoke Island Festival Park also has a visitor center. a movie, "The Legend of Two-Path"; the Roanoke Adventure Museum; and a major gift shop.
The chronicle of the first English settlers is elaborated in another major landmark on Roanoke Island, Fort Raleigh National Historic Site.
Although Sir Walter Raleigh himself never set foot in the New World, he was given permission by Queen Elizabeth I to start a site for the first of three so-called "roanoke journeys" to America in 1584, as previously mentioned select for this trip Build a camp from which you can launch raids on Spanish ships and search for precious metals like gold. It arrived in July.
After returning to England, it was decided that the island, due to its sheltered shores, would be the optimal location and the country would be judged very positively, as Captain Arthur Barlowe put it in his report to Sir Walter Raleigh.
"We found it to be a very pleasant and fertile soil," he wrote, "filled with good cedars and various other sweet woods full of currants, flax and many notable goods … The soil is the most abundant, sweetest, fertile and wholesome for the whole world. "
A second expedition, which was carried out the following year with 108 soldiers, was to claim England's final claim.
In view of this more permanent settlement, an earthen fortress was built on the north side of the island. However, the previously friendly relations with the Native Americans declined as they began to succumb to the diseases caused by the English, and the winter, when there were scarcely so many crops and food as the warmer months, induced the colonists, from the American Becoming increasingly dependent on indigenous people until relationships became tense. The assassination of Chief Wingina, the most important event in the history of the young colony, sealed the fate of the Europeans and from then on they were declared "enemies".
Obviously delayed supply ships made their return to England at the first opportunity – and when Sir Francis Drake sailed for Roanoke Island, this opportunity presented itself. Fifteen colonists, however, stayed behind to oversee the fortress and the land they had already claimed.
On the third expedition in 1587, 117 men, women and children crossed the Atlantic again to establish a permanent settlement and represent the real population. They were promised individual plots.
However, they only drove back to Roanoke Island to retrieve the original 15 before traveling inland to start their own village, and found no trace of them.
John White, who had been appointed governor of the new colony, returned to England for a brief supply journey, but conflicting events-including a shortage of ships he could sail with-prevented his return until 1590. This journey Nor, along with the following ones in the early seventeenth century, did it succeed in locating the lost colonists, who had apparently left behind only the abandoned fort and some artifacts.
However, they had been instructed to post a message if they wanted to leave the area or if unforeseen events proved detrimental to their safety. For this purpose, the letters "CRO" were carved into a tree and the full word "CROATAN" appeared on a gate post, both in relation to the local tribe and perhaps the reason for their disappearance.
Although the excavations are continuing, no definitive reason has yet been found that raises three hypotheses: they died of natural causes, were attacked, or voluntarily left – but where and by what means was never determined, if at all, this third theory true.
Part of this story is told through artifacts uncovered during the fort's excavation and exhibited at the Lindsay Warren Visitor Center Museum. The highlight is the decorative wood paneling that characterizes an Elizabethan estate that once graced the walls of Heronden Hall in Kent, England, in 1926 by William Randolph Hearst for his own castle in San Simeon, California. The National Park Service acquired it in the 1960s. Spaces like the one in the Visitor Center would have been prevalent in the homes of wealthy men like Sir Walter Raleigh himself.
An outdoor trail leads to the foundations of the reconstructed earthen fortress. "On this spot," colonists sent by Sir Walter Raleigh of England built a fortress from July to August 1585, which they called "the new fortress in Virginia." These colonists were the first settlers of the English race in America and returned to England in July 1586 with Sir Francis Drake. Near this place, Virginia Dare was born on 18 August 1587, the first born child of English parents in America. "
A historical account of the first English settlers known as the "true story of adventure, courage and sacrifice", "enriched, educated and entertained", is titled "The Lost Colony" and is performed from the end of May to the end of September , August at the Outdoor Waterside Theater on the grounds of the Fort Raleigh National Historic Site. Based on the story of Pulitzer Prize winner Paul Green, it premiered in 1937, but has since been running, employing more than 100 actors, singers and dancers to recreate the events leading up to the first. The disappearance of the colonists through royal splendor, Indian dance, epic battles, Elizabethan music and elaborate costumes.
Another local attraction is the Elizabethan Gardens, a 10.5-hectare botanical garden that has more than a thousand different trees, shrubs and flowers via brick and sand paths.
"Created to honor the first English colonists who adorned these shores," explains the museum, "history, mystery and imagination are united in these particular gardens that the North Carolina Garden Club created in 1951 as a living memorial to them first English colonists who explored the New World between 1584 and 1587 and settled on Roanoke Island. "
According to the sign in front of the Gate House, the entrance to the garden and the gift shop, "a performance of" The Lost Colony Symphonic Outdoor Drama "has planted the seed in the creative heads that first introduced this garden . "
There are many highlights in this tranquil oasis. For example, the statue of Queen Elizabeth I is the largest in the world, while nearby is a smaller statue of Virginia Dare. Handcrafted brick, gargoyles, seasonal flowers, a marble table and a stone birdbath highlight the garden view of Roanoke Sound from the viewing deck. The Colony Walk honors the lost colonists who once lived on these shores and are lined with coastal tolerant plants. Reed from Norfolk, England, was used in the thatched roof of a replica of a 16th century pavilion. There are more than 125 species of flowers in the camellia collection, while an old oak tree was probably preserved from the days when the colonists lived on the island in 1585.
Another attraction of Roanoke Island is the North Carolina Aquarium, one of the three state facilities on the coast. Especially on the banks of Roanoke Sound, not far from Dare County Regional Airport, it shows the theme of "Waters of the Outer Banks."
The North Carolina Coastal Plain, as depicted in the Coastal Freshwaters ad, offers wildlife a variety of freshwater habitats. Streams and rivers flow on their way to the sounds through swamps, pocosines and other wetlands. The waterways connect all these habitats and allow the passage of wildlife from one to another.
The Albemarle Sound is fed by seven freshwater rivers. In order to survive in the sound itself, plants and animals must be able to adjust to salinity changes, which are themselves caused by rain and drafts.
Otters and alligators roam the exhibition "Wetlands on the Edge," while other exhibits include the "Marine Communities" and "The Open Ocean."
The focal point of the aquarium is the 285,000 gallon saltwater exhibition "Graveyard of the Atlantic" with more than 200 fish and the largest shark collection in North Carolina.